Child Care and Early Education Research Connections

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1. Children & Child Development

Resources dealing broadly with children’s demographic characteristics, the processes and outcomes of child development, and the factors that influence it, as they relate to child care and early education. This group includes children with special needs.

  • 1.1. Child Characteristics

    Resources dealing specifically with children’s demographic characteristics as they relate to child care and early education.

    • 1.1.1. Age

      Resources dealing specifically with children’s age as it relates to child care and early education. Includes redshirting and other age of entry issues. Does not include resources focusing on services or curricula for children in particular age groups, such as infants, toddlers, school-age children, etc.

    • 1.1.2. Gender

      Resources dealing specifically with children’s gender as it relates to child care and early education. Includes resources that focus on children specifically because of their gender. Does not include resources that mention but do not focus on children’s gender.

    • 1.1.3. Race/Ethnicity

      Resources dealing specifically with children’s race/ethnicity as it relates to child care and early education. Includes resources that focus on children specifically because of their race/ethnicity. Does not include resources that mention but do not focus on children’s race/ethnicity.

    • 1.1.4. Socioeconomic Status

      Resources dealing specifically with the socioeconomic status of children’s families (for example: parent education, occupation, income, employment status, receipt of welfare and/or other public assistance) as it relates to child care and early education. Includes resources that focus on children specifically because of the socioeconomic status of their families. Does not include resources that mention but do not focus on the socioeconomic status of their families.

    • 1.1.5. Urban/Suburban/Rural

      Resources dealing specifically with children’s urban, suburban, or rural locations as they relate to child care and early education. Includes resources that focus on children specifically because of their location. Does not include resources that mention but do not focus on children’s urban, suburban or rural location.

    • 1.1.6. Time in Child Care

      Resources dealing specifically with the amounts of time that children spend in non-parental care. Includes research on how children’s outcomes vary depending on factors such as: whether they attend half-day or full-day care; how early they begin care; and/or how many years they spend in care. For resources about half-day or full-day programs see 6.1 Programs.

  • 1.2. Child Development & School Readiness

    Resources dealing with aspects of children’s development and its measurement as they relate to child care and early education. Includes resources that relate children’s development to their readiness for school. For resources focusing on interventions or curricula rather than children, see 6.2 Interventions/Curricula. For resources dealing with the readiness of parents, schools, and communities for formal schooling, see 12.1 Parent, School, & Community School Readiness.

    • 1.2.1. Assessment & Measurement

      Resources that deal broadly with the assessment and measurement of children’s overall development or that deal with different aspects of children’s development but do not focus on them in depth. Some common measures are: Bayley Scales of Infant Development, High/Scope Child Observation Record, and McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities. Note that these measures may be composites of several separate scales that each measure different developmental domains. If only one scale is used, for instance a behavior/socialemotional development or cognitive development scale, see the more specific term.

    • 1.2.2. Brain Development/Maturation

      Resources dealing specifically with children’s brain development as it relates to child care and early education.

    • 1.2.3. Physical Development & Growth

      Resources dealing specifically with children’s physical development and growth (for example: indicators of physical growth, development, and wellbeing such as height, weight, prematurity, health status, chronic health conditions, nutritional status, growth curves, sleep patterns, circadian rhythms, motor development, stress and cortisol levels) as they relate to child care and early education. Includes research in which instruments that measure children’s physical development and growth are used.

    • 1.2.4. Behavior/Social & Emotional Development/Socialization

      Resources dealing specifically with children’s behavior, social-emotional development, and socialization (for example: attachment, self-concept, learning, affect modulation, adaptation, behavior in groups, reactiveness, discipline, interaction with adults, following instructions) as it relates to child care and early education. Includes research in which instruments that measure children’s behavior are used. Some common measures are: Attachment Q Sort, Child Behavior Checklist, Infant Temperament Questionnaire, Peer Play Scale, and Social Skills Rating System.

    • 1.2.5. Cognitive Development

      Resources dealing specifically with children’s cognitive development as it relates to child care and early education. Includes research in which instruments that measure children’s cognitive abilities are used. Some common measures are: Bracken Basic Concepts Scales, McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Expressive OneWord Picture Vocabulary Test, MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Preschool Language Scale, Reynell Developmental Language Scales, Test of Early Language Development. Includes resources dealing with children's language and /or math skills and development in out-of-school settings unless they are specifically related to early literacy or early math, in which case see 1.2.6 Early Literacy or 1.2.7 Early Math/Numeracy. Note that there is a distinction between preschool cognitive development and academic performance/achievement/skills in the formal school years. For resources dealing with the latter, see 12.3 School Performance & Success.

    • 1.2.6. Early Literacy

      Resources dealing with children's early literacy skills and development, including their phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, and print awareness. Note that 1.2.5 Cognitive Development should be used for resources dealing with children's language skills and development, unless language skills and development are specifically related to children's early literacy skills and development. Some common measures are: Concepts about Print, Preschool Comprehensive Test of Phonological and Print Processing, Test of Early Reading Ability, Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests.

    • 1.2.7. Early Math/Numeracy

      Resources dealing specifically with children’s early math and numeracy skills and development as they relate to child care and early education. Includes research in which instruments that measure children’s math and numeracy skills are used.

    • 1.2.8. Family Influences

      Resources dealing specifically with family influence on children’s development.

    • 1.2.9. Community, Cultural, & Social Influences

      Resources dealing specifically with the influence of the surrounding community, culture, society, and/or peers on children’s development.

  • 1.3. Children with Special Needs & Special Child Populations

    Resources dealing specifically with special populations of children.

    • 1.3.1 Children with Special Needs

      Resources dealing with children with all types of special needs (for example: language delays, other developmental delays, autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, gifted/talented). Includes resources dealing with the early detection, screening, and assessment of the special needs of children. This heading is used for resources that focus specifically on children and not on interventions or curricula. For resources that focus on interventions/curricula for children with special needs, see 6.2.6 Special Needs Children (under 6.2 Interventions/Curricula).

    • 1.3.2 Immigrant, Migrant and Refugee Status

      Resources dealing specifically with children who are immigrants/migrants/refugees, or whose parents are immigrants/migrants/refugees.

    • 1.3.3 Native Language

      Resources dealing specifically with children whose native/home language is not English, and/or resources dealing specifically with children’s native language as it relates to child care and early education. Includes resources that focus on children specifically because of their native language. Does not include resources that mention but do not focus on children’s native language.

2. Parents & Child Development

Resources dealing with parents and families using child care and early education services.

  • 2.1 Selection of Child Care & Early Education Arrangements

    Resources dealing with the factors that affect, or can affect, parents’ selection of child care and early education arrangements, and the choice process. Includes resources in which parents describe the child care and early education arrangements they use for their children. For resources dealing with parents’ satisfaction with the arrangements they have chosen, see 2.3.2 Parent Satisfaction.

  • 2.2. Child Care & Early Education Expenses

    Resources dealing with parents’ and families’ child care and early education expenses. Includes resources that focus on child care and early education expenses from the point of view of the parents. Does not include resources on the price of child care and early education in the market, or the revenue of, or prices charged by, particular providers. For market rate studies, see 3.4 Market Rates.

  • 2.3. Involvement in Child Care & Early Education

    Resources dealing with parents’ and families’ involvement in children’s child care and early education experiences. Includes, for example, resources dealing with parents’ satisfaction with child care and early education arrangements, communication with child care and early education providers, or participation in activities at child care and early education programs. Also includes resources dealing with child literacy and other early education activities in the home.

    • 2.3.1. Parent-Provider

      Resources dealing with relationships between parents and caregivers, teachers, and/or programs. Includes parent feelings about and attitudes toward caregivers/teachers as well as communication between parents and caregivers/teachers. Also includes caregiver/teacher feelings about, and attitudes toward, parents.

    • 2.3.2. Parent Satisfaction

      Resources dealing with parents’ satisfaction with their child care arrangements. Includes overall satisfaction with child care arrangements, or satisfaction with particular aspects of child care arrangements such as price, schedule, location, and quality. Does not include resources about satisfaction with child care arrangements as it relates to parent-provider relationships. For those resources, see 2.3.1 Parent-Provider.

    • 2.3.3. Parent-Child

      Resources dealing with parent involvement in children's early learning and education experiences. Includes parenting activities intended to foster children's early learning and education, such as reading to children or taking them to museums. Also includes resources about the involvement of grandparents or other family members. Does not include general childrearing practices or parent-child relationships. For resources about parent education programs, see also subheadings under 6.1 Programs.

  • 2.4. Parent/Family Practices and Structure

    Resources dealing with the characteristics of families as they relate to child care and early education.

    • 2.4.1. Childrearing & Household Labor

      Resources dealing with childrearing and household labor. Includes resources dealing with parenting practices and parental discipline practices and/or beliefs.

    • 2.4.2. Families & Work

      Resources dealing with the relationship between families and work (work-life balance) as it relates to child care and early education. Includes resources dealing with the relationship between labor force participation decisions and child care and early education decisions.

    • 2.4.3. Family Structure

      Resources dealing with family structure as it relates to child care and early education. Includes, for example, resources dealing with family size or the relationship of single parenthood or co-residence of grandparents to child care and early education decisions.

  • 2.5. Parent/Family Characteristics

    Resources dealing specifically with parents’ demographic characteristics as they relate to child care and early education.

    • 2.5.1. Age

      Resources dealing specifically with parents’ age as it relates to child care and early education (for example: teen parents).

    • 2.5.2. Gender

      Resources dealing specifically with parents’ gender as it relates to child care and early education. Includes, for example, resources on father involvement with child care and early education.

    • 2.5.3. Race/Ethnicity

      Resources dealing specifically with parents’ race and/or ethnicity as it relates to child care and early education.

    • 2.5.4. Immigrant & Migrant Status

      Resources dealing specifically with parents’ immigrant and migrant status as it relates to child care and early education.

    • 2.5.5. Native Language

      Resources dealing specifically with parents’ native language as it relates to child care and early education.

    • 2.5.6. Socioeconomic Status

      Resources dealing specifically with parents’ and families’ socioeconomic status (for example: parent education, occupation, income, employment status, receipt of welfare and/or other public assistance) as it relates to child care and early education.

    • 2.5.7. Urban/Suburban/Rural

      Resources dealing specifically with parents’ urban, suburban or rural location as it relates to child care and early education.

    • 2.5.8. Physical and Mental Health

      Resources dealing specifically with parents’ physical and mental health as it relates to child care and early education. Includes resources focusing on substance abuse and maternal depression.

3. Child Care & Early Education Market

Resources dealing with the overall market for child care and early education services.

  • 3.1. Access To Child Care & Early Education

    Resources dealing with access to child care and early education services in the market, in general or in reference to a particular geographic area. Includes theoretical discussions of the child care market. Includes barriers to and facilitators of access to child care services. Barriers and facilitators include: availability of child care slots in a particular geographic area (includes issues related to transportation, such as time and distance) and during particular times of day (includes issues related to nontraditional work and child care hours, such as evening and weekend hours) and price of child care (includes issues related to availability of and access to child care assistance). This term is only used for resources discussing child care availability and price in the explicit context of barriers to, or facilitators of, access to child care services.

  • 3.2. Demand & Supply/Needs Assessment

    Resources dealing with the supply of and demand for child care and early education services in a particular geographic area. Often the supply of child care will be described in terms of child care slots and demand for child care in terms of child population size. Child care demand also includes, and is more colloquially thought of as, actual parental demand for child care, i.e. how much child care parents would use, or claim they would use, were it available at a given price. Includes resources addressing factors that affect child care supply and demand. Also includes needs assessments, which are often identical to studies of child care supply and demand that employ a “child care slots/child population size” methodology. Note that demand and needs assessments in this context relate to parents’ needs for child care and early education services, and not to the needs of providers or programs.

  • 3.3. Cost of Providing Services

    Resources dealing with the cost of providing child care and early education services. Does not include resources focusing on parents’ child care and early education expenses and does not include resources focusing on revenues or prices charged by particular providers.

  • 3.4. Market Rates

    Used for child care market rate surveys and other resources dealing with the price of child care to consumers. Does not include resources focusing on providers’ costs of delivering services.

  • 3.5. Economic & Societal Impact

    Resources dealing with the broader impacts of child care and early education on the economy and society. Includes economic impact studies and cost-benefit analyses.

    • 3.5.1. Economic Impact

      Resources dealing with the economic impact of the child care and early education industry as a whole, usually in terms of industry employment, revenue, and outlays, and also in terms of facilitating parent labor force participation.

    • 3.5.2. Cost Benefit Analysis

      Resources comparing the costs and benefits of child care and early education programs. Includes costbenefit analyses of child care and early education programs as well as child care and early education as an investment in early human capital formation. Also includes longitudinal studies of program or intervention effects on participants’ economic success later in life. Examples include longitudinal analyses of amounts spent on programs such as Head Start, High Scope, or Abecedarian, versus amounts saved. For resources that specifically deal with crime reduction as a program benefit, see 3.5.3 Crime Prevention.

    • 3.5.3. Crime Prevention

      Resources dealing with child care and early education participation as a way to reduce crime. Includes longitudinal analyses of the relationship of child care and early education participation to adolescent and adult crime, and the uses of after school child care as a crime prevention tool.

4. Child Care & Early Education Providers/Organizations

Resources dealing with providers as entities delivering a child care and/or early education service, their type and sponsorship. For resources dealing with providers as individuals in the child care and early education workforce, see 5. Child Care & Early Education Provider Workforce.

  • 4.1. Provider Type/Setting

    Includes resources that deal broadly with different types/settings of providers or that deal with different aspects of different providers but do not focus on them in depth.

    • 4.1.1. Center-Based Child Care & Early Education

      Resources dealing specifically with center-based child care and early education providers. Includes care provided in a non-residential facility. Includes child care and early education provided in school settings.

    • 4.1.2. Family Child Care & Early Education

      Resources dealing specifically with home-based family child care and early education providers. Generally includes family child care providers who are licensed, regulated, or registered, and, in the United Kingdom, childminders. Does not include family, friend, and neighbor caregivers.

    • 4.1.3. Family, Friend, & Neighbor (Informal)

      Resources dealing specifically with relatives, friends, neighbors, and/or babysitters/nannies, providing home-based care that is legally unlicensed, license-exempt, or not required to be regulated (also referred to as informal care, kith and kin care, etc.) Includes resources about siblings or other family members who are high school age or older and provide care for younger children.

    • 4.1.4. Self Care

      Resources dealing specifically with care provided by the child to himself or herself. Includes resources about latchkey children and children under high school age who provide care for other children.

  • 4.2. Sponsorship

    Includes resources that deal broadly with providers with different organizational, management, and business structures. Sponsors may also be funders, but are more often entities that receive funding to provide child care and early education services. For resources dealing specifically with funding, see 9. Financing & Funding.

    • 4.2.1. Community-Based

      Resources dealing generally with child care and early education operated by private, community-based organizations. For resources dealing with a specific category of community-based child care provider (for example: faith-based, for-profit, non-profit) see the more specific term.

    • 4.2.2. Employer-Supported

      Resources dealing with child care and early education services provided by private or public employers of children’s parents.

    • 4.2.3. Faith-Based

      Resources dealing with child care and early education services provided or funded by faith organizations.

    • 4.2.4. For-Profit/Nonprofit

      Resources in which the for-profit and/or nonprofit status of child care and early education providers is a unit of analysis.

    • 4.2.5. Military Child Care

      Resources dealing with military-based child care and early education services.

    • 4.2.6. Public School-Based

      Resources dealing with child care and early education services operated by and/or based in public schools.

    • 4.2.7. Private School-Based

      Resources dealing with child care and early education services operated by and/or based in private schools.

5. Child Care & Early Education Provider Workforce

Resources dealing with providers as individuals in the child care and early education workforce. Includes resources that focus on the characteristics of particular provider types but that do not focus on any of the characteristics sufficiently to be covered by 5.1 through 5.7. Also includes workforce surveys. For resources dealing with providers as organizational entities delivering child care and/or early education services, see 4. Child Care & Early Education Providers/Organizations.

  • 5.1. Demographic Characteristics

    Resources dealing with demographic characteristics of child care and early education workers. Includes resources focusing on the workforce as an aggregate. Does not include resources that mention but do not focus on demographic and other characteristics of workers.

  • 5.2 Education, Certification, & Credentialing

    Resources dealing with the education, certification, and credentialing of child care and early education workers. Includes resources focusing on formal education levels of workers as well as on programs providing creditbearing education services. Also includes resources about programs that confer formal qualifications such as college degrees or professional certification. For other types of professional development see 5.3 Training, Mentoring, & Apprenticeships.

  • 5.3. Training, Mentoring, & Apprenticeships

    Resources dealing with the professional development via non-credit training, mentoring, and apprenticing of child care and early education workers. Includes resources focusing on training levels of workers as well as on programs providing training services. Also includes resources focusing on peer support and networking technology for individual providers. For programs that confer formal qualifications see 5.2 Education, Certification, & Credentialing.

  • 5.4. Provider Physical & Mental Health & Safety

    Resources dealing with the health and safety of child care and early education workers themselves. Includes resources focusing on worker depression and mental health. Does not include resources dealing with the health and safety practices of workers with respect to their caregiving activities.

  • 5.5. Recruitment, Retention & Job Satisfaction

    Resources dealing with the recruitment, retention, and job satisfaction of child care and early education workers. Includes resources focusing on: recruitment and retention levels; programs and initiatives aimed at affecting recruitment and retention levels; and caregiver/teacher attitudes about child care and early education work, including professionalism and job commitment.

  • 5.6. Wages, Compensation & Benefits

    Resources dealing with the wages, compensation, and benefits of child care and early education workers. Includes resources focusing on the wages, compensation, and benefits levels and resources focusing on programs and initiatives aimed at affecting wages, compensation, and benefits levels.

  • 5.7. Working Conditions

    Resources dealing with the working conditions of child care and early education workers. Includes resources dealing with any conditions in child care and early education settings that affect the ability of workers to care for and educate children.

6. Programs, Interventions & Curricula

Resources dealing broadly with aspects of child care and early education within program, intervention, or curricular settings.

  • 6.1 Programs

    Resources in which the units of analysis are programs offered by child care and early education providers. Includes resources that deal broadly with different types of programs or that deal with different aspects of different programs but do not focus on them in depth. Includes descriptions and evaluations of various categories of programs, such as programs targeted at particular categories of children (at risk children, children with special needs, school-age, infants and toddlers) or programs with particular aims, goals, or philosophies that characterize services (health-based programs, two-generation programs, integrated services programs). Also includes resources about programs that provide services using formal curricula if the unit of analysis is the broader program in which the curriculum is used. For resources where the unit of analysis is the curriculum itself, rather than the program in which it is used, see 6.2 Interventions/Curricula.

    • 6.1.1. Administration & Management

      Resources dealing with the administration and management of child care and early education programs. Programs may operate and provide child care and early education services at multiple sites. Multi-site programs often have a single administrative and/or management structure, and often have an overarching aim, goal, or philosophy that characterizes the services provided.

    • 6.1.2. Infant & Toddler

      Resources describing or evaluating child care and early education programs and programming designed specifically for infants and toddlers (children from birth to 3 years old).

    • 6.1.3. Early Head Start/Head Start

      Resources describing or evaluating Early Head Start or Head Start programs.

    • 6.1.4. Preschool

      Resources describing or evaluating part-day or full-day child care and early education programs and programming (sometimes called nursery school) for children from 3 to 5 years of age. Does not include resources about publicly funded prekindergarten programs (sometimes called preschool). For resources about publicly funded prekindergarten programs, see 6.1.5 Public Prekindergarten.

    • 6.1.5. Mixed Age

      Resources describing or evaluating child care and early education programs and programming for children from more than one age group. For resources describing or evaluating two-generation or intergenerational child care and early education programs serving children and adults, see 6.1.9 Two-Generation Programs.

    • 6.1.6. Public Prekindergarten

      Resources describing or evaluating part-day or full-day prekindergarten programs (sometimes called preschool), typically for children 4 years of age, or 3 & 4 years of age, funded by government departments of education (usually state but sometimes federal or local) and operated in public schools or communitybased organizations. For resources about programs that are not publicly funded, see 6.1.4 Preschool.

    • 6.1.7. Kindergarten

      Resources describing or evaluating kindergarten programs.

    • 6.1.8. Out-Of-School Time

      Resources describing or evaluating out-of-school time child care programs—before and after school, school holidays and vacations, and/or summer.

    • 6.1.9. Two-Generation Programs

      Resources describing or evaluating two-generation or intergenerational child care and early education programs serving children and adults together. For resources describing or evaluating programs serving children from more than one age group, see 6.1.5 Mixed Age.

    • 6.1.10. Integrated Services Programs

      Resources describing or evaluating programs that integrate health, family support and other services with child care and early education services, including Home Visiting programs related to child care and early education. For resources describing or evaluating Early Head Start or Head Start programs, see 6.1.3 Early Head Start/Head Start. For resources about integrated services programs that are also early intervention/protective/therapeutic/at-risk programs, see 6.1.11 Early Intervention/Protective/Therapeutic/At-Risk Programs.

    • 6.1.11. Early Intervention/Protective/Theraputic/At-Risk Programs

      Resources describing or evaluating early intervention programs that respond to early developmental delays, and resources dealing with protective, therapeutic, or at-risk child care and early education programs. Includes resources about language immersion programs and integrated services programs that are also early intervention/protective/therapeutic/at-risk programs.

    • 6.1.12. Physical & Mental Health-Based Programs

      Resources describing or evaluating child care and early education programs focused on the serious health needs of the children served.

    • 6.1.13. Inclusive Programs

      Resources describing or evaluating child care and early education programs serving children with and without special needs in the same setting.

  • 6.2. Interventions/Curricula

    Resources in which the units of analysis are formal interventions or curricula that are, or can be, implemented in child care and early education programs. Includes descriptions and evaluations of specific curricula and/or aspects of different interventions/curricula. Does not include resources dealing with general educational or caregiving practices in child care and early education programs. 6.2 includes resources that compare different interventions/curricula or that describe, evaluate, or give overviews of different types of interventions/curricula. See one or more of the narrower headings below for resources dealing with child characteristics (6.2.2 through 6.2.6) or developmental outcomes (6.2.1 and 6.2.7 through 6.2.10) associated with specific interventions/curricula. For resources where the unit of analysis is the broader program in which the curriculum is used, rather than the curriculum itself, see 6.1 Programs. For resources focusing on children’s development, rather than interventions/curricula, see 1.2 Child Development & School Readiness.

    • 6.2.1. Comprehensive

      Resources describing or evaluating interventions/curricula designed to improve multiple developmental outcomes or outcomes in more than one of the domains described in 6.2.7 through 6.2.10.

    • 6.2.2. Infant & Toddler

      Resources describing or evaluating interventions/curricula for infants and toddlers (generally birth through 2 years of age), for example, the Program for Infant and Toddler Caregivers developed by WestEd.

    • 6.2.3. Preschool

      Resources describing or evaluating interventions/curricula designed for use in preschools or in programs (frequently part-day) for preschool-age children, generally 3-5 year-olds.

    • 6.2.4. School Age

      Resources describing or evaluating interventions/curricula designed for school-age children, including those associated with after school settings.

    • 6.2.5. Mixed Age Groupings

      Resources describing or evaluating interventions/curricula for mixed aged groups.

    • 6.2.6. Children with Special Needs

      Resources describing or evaluating interventions/curricula for special needs children. This heading is used for resources that focus specifically on interventions and curricula for children with special needs, including interventions within both segregated and inclusive settings. For resources that focus on children with special needs, but not on interventions or curricula for them,see 1.3.1 Special Needs (under 1.3 Special Needs Children & Special Child Populations).

    • 6.2.7. Social & Emotional

      Resources describing or evaluating interventions/curricula focused on social and/or emotional development.

    • 6.2.8. Physical & Mental Health, Safety & Nutrition

      Resources describing or evaluating health-, mental health-, safety-, and nutrition-focused interventions/curricula.

    • 6.2.9. Early Literacy

      Resources describing or evaluating literacy-focused interventions/curricula.

    • 6.2.10. Early Math/Numeracy

      Resources describing or evaluating numeracy-focused interventions/curricula.

    • 6.2.11. Other Specialized Interventions/Curricula

      Resources describing or evaluating special interventions/curricula in other subjects, including Art, Science, and computer use.

7. Policies

Resources in which the units of analysis are policies on child care and early education and/or other related areas. Includes resources about licensing, regulation, and standards, as well as economic and social policies as the policy context. Does not include resources where policies themselves are not a main focus.

  • 7.1. Child Care & Early Education Policies

    Resources dealing with child care and early education policies. Includes resources that deal broadly with different types of child care and early education policies or that deal with different aspects of different child care and early education policies but do not focus on them in depth. For resources dealing with policies related to a specific program, such as Early Head Start/Head Start or Public Prekindergarten, see also the appropriate heading under 6.1 Programs, as well as the policy heading. (For example, a resource about Head Start standards would be assigned the headings 6.1.3 Early Head Start/Head Start and 7.1.2 Standards.)

    • 7.1.1. Licensing & Regulation

      Resources dealing with child care and early education licensing and regulation policies. Includes resources dealing with descriptions of state policies and resources dealing with the effects of policies on providers.

    • 7.1.2. Standards

      Resources dealing with child care and early education policies related to standards for child care and early education services and providers. Includes state early learning standards and professional development standards.

    • 7.1.3. Accreditation

      Resources dealing with the accreditation levels of programs or with various accreditation systems for child care and early education programs, including those of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, the National Association for Family Child Care, and other accreditation systems.

    • 7.1.4. Quality Of Services

      Resources dealing with child care and early education policies related to the quality of services. Includes, for example, resources dealing with quality rating systems/quality rating and improvement systems (QRS/QRIS) (including tiered reimbursements). Note that this heading is used for resources that are explicitly about policies related to the quality of services. For resources about the quality of services, but not about quality policies, see 11. Child Care & Early Education Quality.

    • 7.1.5. Access & Coverage

      Resources dealing with aspects of child care and early education policies related to access (who is permitted to use services) and coverage (what areas or groups are served).

    • 7.1.6. Subsidies

      Resources dealing with state and federal child care and early education subsidy policies. Includes resources dealing with descriptions of policies covering families who receive subsidies (for example: policies on income eligibility and co-payment levels) and providers who accept subsidy payments (for example: policies on state reimbursement/payment rates and attendance requirements). Also includes resources dealing with improper payments.

    • 7.1.7. Universal Provision

      Includes resources dealing with descriptions of policies to make public prekindergarten universally available. Also includes resources dealing with legislation, and resources dealing with the effects of universal provision on the market, providers, and children. Does not include resources dealing with policies to ensure availability of subsidies for all who are currently eligible. For these resources, see 7.1.6 Subsidies.

  • 7.2. Coordination & Integration

    Resources dealing specifically with the coordination and integration of child care and early education policies. Includes the coordination and integration of policies within states or localities. Also includes coordination of different federal policies and the coordination and integration of federal policies with state policies. For resources dealing with the coordination and integration of child care and early education services see 8.2 Coordination & Integration of Child Care and Early Education Services.

  • 7.3. Economic & Social Policies

    Resources dealing with economic and social policies.

    • 7.3.1. Economic Security

      Resources dealing with policies to promote family economic security. Includes TANF and other work supports.

    • 7.3.2. Education Policies (Beyond Early Childhood Education)

      Resources dealing with education policies for elementary and secondary education. Includes resources focusing on the policies for the full educational spectrum from preschool and beyond, as well as resources dealing with after school programs. For undergraduate and graduate education policies related to child care and early education workers, see 5.3 Education, Certification, & Credentialing.

    • 7.3.3. Employment Policies

      Resources dealing with employment and labor policies that can affect both parents and the Child Care & Early Education workforce.

    • 7.3.4. Tax Policies

      Resources dealing with tax policies. Includes state and federal Child Care and Dependent Care Tax Credits.

  • 7.4. Equality & Equity

    Resources dealing with policies to reduce disparities in access to, and quality of, child care and early education and other services.

  • 7.5. Physical & Mental Health & Safety

    Resources dealing with health, mental health, and safety policies as they relate to child care and early education.

    • 7.5.1. Childhood Illnesses

      Resources dealing with policies related to childhood illnesses as they relate to child care and early education. Does not include licensing policies.

    • 7.5.2. Children's Mental Health

      Resources dealing with policies related to children’s mental health issues as they relate to child care and early education. Does not include licensing policies.

    • 7.5.3. Accidents/Injuries

      Resources dealing with policies related to accidents and injuries as they relate to child care and early education, for example the Back to Sleep campaign. Does not include licensing policies.

    • 7.5.4. Risk Factors (Abuse & Neglect, Substance Abuse, Domestic Violence)

      Resources dealing with policies related to risk factors as they relate to child care and early education. Does not include licensing policies.

    • 7.5.5. Guidelines, Regulations, Standards, & Product Safety

      Resources dealing with guidelines, regulations, standards, and product safety as they relate to child care and early education. Does not include licensing policies.

    • 7.5.6. Nutrition, Programs & Guidelines

      Resources dealing with nutrition programs and guidelines, including the Child and Adult Care Food Program, as they relate to child care and early education. Does not include licensing policies.

    • 7.5.7 Environmental Issues

      Resources dealing with policies related to environmental issues—for example, classroom and playground environments (not including licensing regulations).

    • 7.5.8. Transportation Safety

      Resources dealing with transportation safety policies as they relate to child care and early education. Does not include licensing policies.

    • 7.5.9. Zoning

      Resources relating to zoning regulations as they affect the location of child care centers and family child care homes.

8. Service Delivery

Resources dealing broadly with the delivery or provision of child care and early education and other related services, and/or resources describing, in general terms, how child care and early education services are provided or utilized, often in a particular geographic area. Includes resources about child care and early education data capacity systems.

  • 8.1. Child Care & Early Education Services

    Resources dealing with the delivery of child care and early education services. Includes resources dealing with the systemic delivery of child care and education services, for instance an overview or general description of child care and early education services in a particular geographic location.

  • 8.2. Coordination & Integration Of Child Care and Early Education Services

    Resources dealing with the coordination and integration of child care and early education services at the service delivery level. Includes resources about early childhood/learning intitiatives. For resources dealing with the coordination and integration of child care and early education policies, see 7.2 Coordination & Integration (under 7. Policies).

  • 8.3. Economic & Social Services

    Resources dealing specifically with the delivery of economic and social services as they relate to the delivery of child care and early education services. For resources dealing with economic and social policies as they relate to child care and early education, see 7.3 Economic & Social Policies.

  • 8.4. Physical & Mental Health & Safety

    Resources dealing specifically with the delivery of health and mental health services, such as pediatric, psychiatric, dental, or nutritional care, within or related to child care & early education settings. Also includes resources dealing with the safety of child care and early education service delivery. For resources dealing with health, mental health, and safety policies as they relate to child care and early education see 7.5 Health, Mental Health, & Safety (under 7. Policies).

  • 8.5. Physical Infrastructure

    Resources dealing specifically with physical infrastructure and equipment features as they relate to the delivery of child care and early education services, for example, buildings containing child care centers or transportation to and from child care.

9. Financing & Funding

Resources dealing with child care and early education financing and funding, including funded areas, funding mechanisms, and sources of funding. For resources dealing with improper payments, see 7.1.6 Subsidies.

  • 9.1. Funded Areas

    Resources dealing specifically with the financing and funding of specific areas of services. Subheadings 9.1.1, 9.1.2, and 9.1.3 are compatible with subheadings under the 9.3 Funding Sources heading. Note that the 9.1 heading and its subheadings refer to the services and programs that are funded, while the 9.3 heading and its subheadings refer to the entities that provide funding.

  • 9.2. Funding Mechanisms

    Resources dealing with different ways of funding child care and early education . Mechanisms direct funding to individuals, programs, and government entities. They include resources examining, for example, vouchers/certificates that follow the child, contracts with programs, block grants to states, bonds, and other strategies that channel funding for child care and early education.

    • 9.2.1. Coordination & Integration

      Resources dealing with the coordination and integration of public funding sources—sometimes called blended or braided funding. Also includes the coordination and integration of public with private funding sources.

  • 9.3. Funding Sources

    Resources dealing specifically with the sources of funding for services, programs, and policies. Includes resources that deal broadly with different sources of funding or that deal with different aspects of different sources of funding but do not focus on them in depth. See also notes under 9.1 Funded Areas.

    • 9.3.1. Public Funding

      Resources dealing with funding from federal, state, and local levels of government.

    • 9.3.2. Private Funding

      Resources dealing with funding from foundations, businesses, and other private sources.

10. Research & Evaluation Methods

Resources addressing issues related to methods and/or processes that are or can be used to carry out research and program evaluation in the field of child care and early education. Includes only resources that are specifically about research and evaluation methods themselves. (For example, a resource about the relative merits of different types of data collection.) Does not include resources about studies that merely employ particular types of research and evaluation methods. (For example, an evaluation of a specific program.)

  • 10.1. Evaluation Methods

    Resources related to the methods of evaluation of child care and early education programs.

  • 10.2. Research Methods

    Resources dealing with methods for conducting research related to child care and early education.

    • 10.2.1. Design

      Resources dealing with methods for the design of studies related to child care and early education.

    • 10.2.2. Data Collection

      Resources dealing with the collection of data used in child care and early education research. Includes resources dealing with issues related to survey design and instrument/measure selection. For specific instruments and measures see 10.3 Measures. For data capacity systems which are used for operational rather than research purposes, see 8. Service Delivery.

    • 10.2.3. Data Analysis & Interpretation

      Resources dealing with methods of analysis and interpretation of data used in child care and early education research.

  • 10.3. Measures

    Resources that are instruments/measures or that describe the development and testing of particular instruments/measures. Includes resources that analyze specific instruments/measures.

11. Child Care & Early Education Quality

Resources describing and measuring the quality of child care and early education caregiving and teaching practices, settings, providers, and programs. Includes resources dealing with global child care and early education quality. Global child care and early education quality refers to the quality of routines, practices, facilities, and equipment. Some common global measures of child care and early education quality include: Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS), Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale (ITERS), Family Day Care Rating Scale (FDCRS), Assessment Profile for Early Childhood Classrooms, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), and Child Care Assessment Tool for Relatives (CCAT-R). Note that while most global quality measures contain a process quality component, see 11.1 Process Quality for resources that specifically address process quality. For resources that deal specifically with policies regarding the quality of services, see 7.1.4 Quality of Services (under 7. Policies).

  • 11.1. Process Quality

    Resources describing and evaluating process quality in the child care and early education environment. Process quality concerns the quality of children’s experiences in child care and early education, including the quality of children’s interactions with caregivers/teachers, and other factors such as continuity of care. Includes any resources touching on child-caregiver relationships. Some common process quality measures include: Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS), Adult Involvement Scale (AIS), and Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE). Note that while most global quality measures contain a process quality component, this heading is only used for resources that specifically address process quality.

  • 11.2. Structural Quality

    Resources describing and evaluating structural quality. Structural quality concerns features of the child care and early education environment that generally are regulable through public policy. They include: child-adult ratio, group size, and caregiver/teacher education level, training, and experience.

  • 11.3. Quality Initiatives

    Resources dealing with initiatives to improve child care and early education quality. Any resource that deals with a specific initiative should be classified here rather than under the more general heading of 11. Child Care & Early Education Quality.

12. Parent, School, & Community School Readiness/Child School Success & Performance

Resources dealing with the readiness of parents, schools, and communities for formal schooling, and the academic performance and success of children in the formal school years.

  • 12.1. Parent, School, & Community School Readiness

    Resources dealing with the readiness of parents, schools, and communities for formal schooling. For resources that deal with levels of children’s development and school readiness prior to school entry, see 1.2 Child Development & School Readiness.

  • 12.2. Transition To School

    Resources dealing specifically with the transition of children, parents, schools, and communities from child care and early education programs to formal schooling.

  • 12.3. School Performance & Success

    Resources dealing with children’s school performance and success in the formal school years. Includes resources dealing with the longitudinal study of the elementary, secondary, and college school performance of children who attended child care and early education programs. Note that there is a distinction between academic performance, achievement, and/or skills in the formal school years and child development and school readiness in the preschool years. For resources dealing with the latter, see 1.2 Child Development & School Readiness.

13. International Child Care & Early Education

Resources dealing with child care and early education in non-U.S. settings. Includes resources that focus broadly on international or global child care and early education issues. See 13.1 for resources about single non-U.S. countries and 13.2 for comparative studies.

  • 13.1. Single-Country Studies

    Resources using data collected in a single country other than the United States. Any resource containing a single non-U.S. country in the Country field is assigned this heading in addition to heading(s) for the main topic(s) of the resource. Also includes resources that do not contain a Country field but focus narrowly on issues or conditions in one single non-U.S. country.

  • 13.2. Cross-National Comparisons

    Resources comparing data from more than one country. Includes resources comparing data from the United States and one or more other countries.

14. Child Care & Early Education Philosophy, Theory, & Comprehensive Works

Resources dealing with the field as a whole, or with over-arching questions that cut across other topics.

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