Child Care and Early Education Research Connections

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COVID-19 Reports

This page includes state, local, and national reports, briefs, and factsheets about COVID-19’s impact on providers and families.

Filter by state or view resources with data from more than one state by selecting "multiple states."

We will update this page periodically as new resources are published. If you are aware of relevant resources that you'd like to see posted here, please send them to RCLibrary@icf.com.

 

The Urban Institute maintains a List of COVID-19 Child Care Surveys and Data Analyses that examine the needs of child care providers and families during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Alaska

September 2020

In June 2020, thread conducted a phone survey with 304 licensed child care programs across the state to learn more about these challenges and what is needed to ensure the system survives. (Alaska has more than 500 licensed/regulated child care programs, child care centers, family child care, school-age, and Head Start programs.) (author abstract)

January 2021

Recognizing that more support may be needed, thread conducted a second survey of 260 licensed child care and after-school/school-age programs in November 2020, to assess current and future needs. The results show a system still in crisis, indicating a need for continued relief and stabilization efforts. (author abstract)

October 2020

To understand needs for PPE among childcare programs, the project partnered with thread to conduct a PPE survey. thread works to increase access to affordable, high-quality early care and education for Alaska’s children by providing direct services for families, educating early childhood professionals, and collaborating with communities. An online PPE survey (Google Forms platform) was distributed via email by thread with voluntary participation. The survey collected needs on types of PPE for preparedness associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was confidential and individual answers were protected. The survey results presented help to gauge PPE needs with Alaska programs and providers. (author abstract)

Alabama

June 2020

The Alabama Partnership for Children (APC) conducted an online survey of working families between May 18, 2020 and June 2, 2020, and received over 500 responses. The survey was shared by many child care and workforce partner agencies to assess working families' child care needs. The results offer AL leaders direction on what is needed for child care programs to open back up safely, the needs of families, and concerns about returning to work and child care. (author abstract)

Arkansas

February 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the provision of early childhood education in Arkansas and across the United States. In partnership with the Arkansas Division of Child Care and Early Childhood Education (DCCECE), SRI International (SRI), and the National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP) at Bank Street College of Education collected information on how Arkansas early childhood education (ECE) providers are implementing state COVID19-related guidelines and coping with the challenges related to these guidelines. (author abstract)

May 2021

This brief represents the second of two reports on the experiences of Arkansas (AR) educators during the COVID-19 pandemic. Survey and focus group information for report one were collected in October and November 2020 (the findings from the first report are available online). In this report, we provide information on the experiences of a separate sample of ECE providers collected in February and March 2021. These include questions that we asked of the fall sample as well as new questions regarding vaccinations, supports for students with disabilities, and educators’ plans for moving forward. (author abstract)

July 2021

This report summarizes the results of three studies on how the COVID pandemic has affected early childhood care and education (ECCE) providers, staff, and children in Arkansas. The studies were conducted by 1) the Research and Evaluation Division at UAMS (UAMS-RED) in Summer 2020, 2) SRI International (SRIARISE) in Fall 2020 and Spring 2021, and 3) the Arkansas Early Childhood Association (AECA) in Fall 2020. (author abstract)

Arizona

July 2020

Throughout the public health crisis, child care businesses were faced with many difficult decisions; the biggest one being whether to remain open. Providers had to weigh many factors, including, but not limited to: the health and safety of their students and staff; supporting the working families who needed care for their children throughout the pandemic; and their operating expenses that were drastically impacted as a result of disenrollment of children. Various data sources suggest that between one-third and two-third of centers remained closed at the beginning of July 2020, and a survey of providers revealed many programs would not be able to remain open or reopen without financial assistance. Weekly data collected from a subset of providers – those participating in a quality improvement initiative through First Things First – shows the fragility of early learning programs overall; although half of participating providers generally have remained open, providers are temporarily closing and reopening on a weekly basis (Figure 1). (author abstract)

California

September 2020

To understand the status of early learning programs—80% of which serve DLLs—as well as the ways they have adapted during the pandemic and the challenges they face, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Early Edge California conducted a survey of a representative sample of early learning and care programs in California (including school-based programs, community-based programs, Head Start programs, State Preschool programs, and family child care homes [FCCHs]). We first drew a stratified random sample of 822 programs, sampled to be representative of all providers in California. We asked all program administrators in this sample to complete a survey (in English or Spanish) and received responses from 278 programs (34%) between June 11 and July 16, 2020. To ensure that the responses were still representative of the state provider population, we made statistical adjustments where necessary. (author abstract)

September 2020

The 2020, COVID-19 pandemic has invariably disrupted the lives of many families in California. This survey sought to understand how this disruption has impacted parents' child care arrangements, plans, and preferences. An online survey in English and Spanish was distributed to more than 12,000 parents, representing 55 of California's 58 counties. Responses showed that most families were currently using a child care center, family, friend, or neighbor (FFN), or family child care home (FCC), in that order. (author abstract)

August 2020

Applied Survey Research (ASR) administered the online COVID-19 Impact Survey to 412 respondents in English (81%) and in Spanish (19%) from June 15 2020 to July 22, 2020. ASR invited two different sets of parents to complete the survey: 1) parents of children under six years of age who had accessed First 5 Contra Costa services and 26 families with children age 6 or over including First 5 Contra Costa Regional Group members (i.e., the First 5 sample, 62% of the full sample), and 2) a broader county-wide sample of parents of children under six years of age not connected to First 5 Contra Costa (i.e., the Panel sample, 38% of the full sample). (author abstract)

August 2020

The following are key findings from an online poll conducted July 20-29, 2020 by EMC Research among 821 California parent/guardians with at least one child under age 8 who are childcare decision-makers. The survey was offered in English, Spanish, and Chinese languages. (author abstract)

July 2020

This is a study of child care sites in California to determine fiscal, staffing, and administrative challenges, as well as the need for clearer regulatory guidance in response to the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. Authors used the snowball method and a questionnaire to collect data from across the state. Findings are presented both statewide and regionally in the following regions: Northern California, the Bay Area, Central California, Los Angeles, and Southern California. These five regions make up the entire state of California.

July 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an unprecedented crisis in California child care. In May 2020, the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment (CSCCE) released results from a survey of more than 2,000 child care programs throughout California, painting a grim picture of the devastating impact of COVID-19. Two months later, as the state began to reopen its economy, we conducted a follow-up survey with those same respondents to understand the changing nature of California child care. A total of 953 programs responded to this survey from June 22 to July 1, 2020: 40% of respondents were center-based administrators, and 60 percent were home-based family child care (FCC) providers. This data snapshot highlights the key findings from our survey results along with responses from providers in their own words. (author abstract)

July 2020

The San Diego Emergency Child Care Task Force worked to support families and child care providers the first 100 days of the COVID-19 pandemic. This coalition surveyed child care providers to assess the status of available child care, understand the challenges providers face in continuing to provide care, and consider solutions to build the pandemic resilience of our child care sector and, ultimately, our economy. (author abstract)

June 2020

To further understand the challenges faced by early educators and caregivers, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Early Edge California conducted seven focus groups in May with 32 Early Learning providers (including administrators, teachers, and caregivers) who work in a variety of settings (school-based; center-based; Head Start; State Preschool; family child care homes; and family, friend and neighbor care) across the state. Most providers from center- and school-based programs, whether publicly funded or private-pay, told us they were closed for the direct provision of on-site care while the state was under stay-at-home orders. However, some centers, family child care (FCC) homes, and family, friend, and neighbor (FFN) care providers reported that they are serving families of essential workers and other at-risk populations. Regardless, all sites reported providing supports to families through some form of communication, distance learning, or other assistance, such as connecting families to resources. (author abstract)

May 2020

In an effort to understand the effects of COVID-19 on child care programs and early educators throughout California, the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment (CSCCE) conducted a brief survey of licensed child care centers and licensed family child care programs in the state. More than 2,000 programs responded to this survey from April 13-30, 2020: 34 percent of survey respondents are centers, and 66 percent are family child care programs. Many of these programs remain open: 34 percent of centers indicated that they are currently open, and 72 percent of family child care programs are open. This data snapshot highlights the key findings from our survey results along with responses from providers in their own words, illustrating the devastating impact of COVID-19 on California child care programs. (author abstract)

April 2020

Global Strategy Group partnered with The Education Trust–West, The Children's Partnership, The District Innovation and Leadership for Early Education Initiative, Early Edge California, and Child360 to conduct this poll. This poll surveyed 600 California parents of children ages 0-5 about the impact of the COVID-19 crisis. The poll had a confidence interval of +/-4.0%. All interviews were conducted via a web-based panel, including 62% of interviews conducted via mobile device. Care has been taken to ensure the geographic and demographic divisions of parents of young children in California are properly represented. (author abstract)

April 2021

In spring and summer 2020, during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment (CSCCE) reached out firsthand to directors of center-based programs and home-based family child care providers, via online surveys, to understand the impact of the pandemic on their programs and on the providers themselves. We did not directly survey teaching staff as part of this study, but the forthcoming results from another study, the California ECE Workforce Study, will include perspectives from teachers. The initial survey findings were released as a brief data snapshot in July 2020. This report greatly expands upon that initial data snapshot and provides a comprehensive look at the survey findings as a whole. Here, we also introduce analysis of qualitative data, along with extensive open-ended survey responses from providers in their own words in sections titled “Ask an Early Educator.” (author abstract)

Colorado

December 2020

A summer 2020 survey of the impact of COVID-19 on families revealed widespread uncertainty about education and care plans and worries about young children’s mental health. In November 2020 some of these same families spoke with Early Milestones Colorado about their education and care experiences. We focused on families with children between 4 and 12 years old who are English Language Learners or receive special education services. We highlight major challenges in parents’ own words. (author abstract)

November 2020

In July 2020 Early Milestones Colorado collected survey responses from 5,942 of the state's early childhood educators. Unsurprisingly, the data revealed furloughs, lay-offs, and uncertainty about the future of their career. Ongoing concerns about health, well-being, and shortages in child care options for their own families are big factors facing educators right now. (author abstract)

September 2020

As part of Colorado's COVID-19 Early Childhood Research Partnership, Early Milestones Colorado conducted five virtual conversations in July and August 2020. These discussions deepened our understanding of how the pandemic is impacting early childhood services and what supports are needed to rebuild the sector. (author abstract)

September 2020

In June 2020 Early Milestones collected survey responses from 1,207 licensed child care providers in Colorado. Through this research, we learned that nearly 10% of Colorado's providers have closed since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, and enrollment has decreased by more than 30%. Though many providers have reopened, the following factors leave many others uncertain about their future: - Concerns about health risks to children and staff, - Enrollment disruptions, and - Increased health and safety costs. Providers who receive public funding have fared better during this crisis. Without financial help, the costs of new health and safety protocols make it difficult for many providers to reopen or remain open. (author abstract)

July 2020

Clayton Early Learning conducted a survey of child care programs in Colorado to learn the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their ability to deliver essential services in their communities. The voices we heard add value to many initiatives in the child care sector's long-term success, and the resulting data are being used to inform policy solutions directed at systemic improvement throughout the state. Results came from 172 provider responses in 29 counties across Colorado. (author abstract)

March 2021

In the summer of 2020 Early Milestones developed three coordinated surveys in conjunction with multiple partners in Colorado’s ECE sector. Our goal was to estimate the impact of COVID-19 throughout the state. These three surveys focused on the quantitative and qualitative experiences of: - Licensed child care programs serving children birth through age 12 - Early educators and child care professionals - Families with children birth through age 12. The family survey was developed in partnership with the Butler Institute for Families at the University of Denver (Butler Institute). Information regarding survey administration and partnership is detailed below. Additionally, we worked closely with Mile High United Way and the Butler Institute to design a fourth survey of family, friend, and neighbor (FFN) providers that was administered in early fall of 2020. The primary focus of this report is the three main surveys listed above, with select additional information incorporated from the FFN survey results. (author abstract)

January 2021

Families already had trouble finding affordable child care before the pandemic. COVID-19 has only made things worse. Many child care providers have shut down or reduced enrollment, family members are out of work, and school operations are shifting every day. The situation has hit Black and Hispanic families the hardest. In the summer of 2020, Early Milestones and the Butler Institute surveyed over 11,000 Colorado families with children birth to age 12. This brief reports the findings. (author abstract)

September 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted families from low-income backgrounds. The shift to remote learning has required parents with preschool-age children to adapt to new ways of collaborating with teachers. Given the longstanding inequities in the education of children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, exacerbated by the pandemic, it is critical to learn about the challenges that parents encountered and how they supported their children’s learning. This knowledge will help to identify ways to better serve these communities during times of crisis and beyond. This study examined how Latinx parents from low-income backgrounds engaged in their children’s early education during the COVID-19 crisis. The term Latinx is used in an effort to be gender inclusive when referring to people of Latin American descent. We explored: 1) How do Latinx parents perceive and apply teachers’ suggested activities to support children’s learning during the early childhood education program closure? 2) What parent and child-initiated learning opportunities do parents report? 3) What challenges with remote learning do parents encounter? Twenty parents of preschoolers in a mountain state metropolitan area participated in a 30–45 min. phone interview. All parents spoke Spanish at home to a different degree. Findings revealed the emergence of more authentic parent-teacher partnerships and parents’ extensive engagement in teacher-suggested activities. Importantly, families created a variety of practices to support children’s learning and wellbeing. Yet, a vast majority of parents expressed feeling stressed with the demands of remote education, particularly keeping their child interested in remote learning. Implications for home-school partnerships are discussed. (author abstract)

April 2021

Despite the ubiquity and importance of FFN care, there is limited data on the characteristics of Colorado’s FFN providers, their needs, and experiences, and most acutely, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the provision of FFN care. Thus, Mile High United Way, in collaboration with the Butler Institute for Families at the University of Denver’s Graduate School of Social Work and Early Milestones Colorado, conducted a research study to address these gaps. (author abstract)

October 2021

To measure the impact of COVID-19, Early Milestones Colorado surveyed providers in the summer of 2020 and again the following winter. This brief highlights changes that providers experienced over the past year. (author abstract)

November 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to have an impact throughout Colorado’s early childhood community. Financial stress, worries about health and safety, and shifting to remote learning each took a toll on educators and families with young children. It is essential to understand how children’s learning and social-emotional development has been affected. This brief explores learning disruptions during the pandemic and their effects on children’s social and emotional well-being as identified through surveys of child care providers, early educators, and families. These findings can help state and local leaders develop the supports families and educators need during pandemic recovery. (author abstract)

Connecticut

June 2020

The Office of Early Childhood’s Business Survey 1 was a project of the OEC's COVID-19 ESF14 team, in partnership with OEC and UCONN data staff. The survey was released Monday, May 5, 2020 and closed Monday, May 18, 2020. The purpose of the survey was to (1) understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child care providers in Connecticut in order to (2) create a plan for recovery efforts. The survey explored facility level enrollment, fiscal impacts of the crisis, program closure reasons, re-opening needs, and access to government relief. The OEC used survey questions both unique to child care businesses and questions used by other Connecticut state departments in surveys to their respective populations. (author abstract)

April 2021

While the COVID-19 pandemic has affected virtually all aspects of the lives of Connecticut's women, we have chosen to focus for this research on the pandemic's economic impact. Because so many aspects of women’s lives are driven by their economic security, we view this question as foundational. This report presents our research and recommendations based thereon. It will be delivered to policymakers, government officials, nonprofit service providers, corporations, employers, funders of nonprofit organizations, and citizens. With this data, our objective is that the economic issues facing Connecticut's women due to COVID-19 are factored prominently into plans for Connecticut’s economic recovery. (author abstract)

District of Columbia

May 2020

Two recent surveys conducted among teachers owners and directors of early learning programs by the District of Columbia Association for the Education of Young Children (DCAEYC) and the Under 3 DC Coalition (Under 3 DC) shed light on the looming and overlooked child care crisis. Following are five key takeaways and recommendations designed to help policymakers, funders and advocates make informed decisions about where resources are needed most in the District to support families with young children as businesses begin to reopen and temporary work-from-home options are phased out. (author abstract)

Delaware

July 2020

More than 1000 Delaware parents shared their thoughts on COVID-19, including appraisals of the just-concluded spring semester, as well as their concerns about returning to classrooms in the fall. Parents weighed in on topics ranging from childcare to health screenings to economic stress. - This non-scientific survey was distributed through email and social media between May 26 and June 22. Governor Carney's initial Declaration of a State of Emergency was March 12. - The survey aimed to gather information from parents so Rodel, the Delaware Readiness Teams, and our partners can better serve families during and after the crisis. (author abstract)

November 2020

An initial brief in May 2020 provided a snapshot of trends in the operating status of Delaware's licensed programs in response to COVID-19. Findings showed that about half of Delaware's programs were closed in mid-April. Additionally a greater percentage of center-based programs closed in comparison to large family child care (LFCC) programs and family child care (FCC) programs. Further, a greater percentage of Delaware Stars programs operated as emergency sites, in comparison to non-Stars programs. The current brief shows increases in the number of open programs over time, once state regulations permitted re-opening. This data is focused on programs that participate in Delaware Stars for Early Success, the state's QRIS, which is 72% of center based and 22% of L/FCC programs in Delaware. (author abstract)

May 2020

There have been changes to the operating status of many of Delaware's licensed programs due to the COVID-19 State of Emergency. The following data highlights the impact. All data reported prior to COVID-19 was retrieved from the Delaware Stars database. (author abstract)

Florida

May 2020

Our goal for this survey was to gather data on parent sentiments about child care during the COVID-19 pandemic. We wanted to learn what parents' future intentions were when executive orders were lifted and to get some sense of how demand for care may shift upon re-opening. We also wanted to know whether or not parents were experiencing issues finding child care as they return to work and what factors they consider when deciding how to navigate child care going forward. (author abstract)

Georgia

August 2020

When schools reopen in the fall, what are the implications for Family Child Care (FCC)? In an ordinary year, it means school age children who attended full time return to school and the provider looks for younger children to fill those spots. In 2020, there is a world of unknowns for parents, school systems, and FCC providers and it revolves around COVID 19. Beginning in early summer, the Professional Family Child Care Alliance of Georgia (PFCCAG) thru its committee, the COVID 19 FCC Crisis Management Team (CM Team), began hearing from providers receiving calls from parents exploring whether the provider would be willing to: care for their child when schools reopened, offer supervision and support for their child who was in virtual school, or offer home school as part of the FCC program. The CM Team created a survey to better understand what was happening. To get a quick response, the survey was distributed by word of mouth and was conducted from July 11, 2020 to July 21, 2020. Ninety seven (97) providers responded representing 22 counties. (author abstract)

April 2020

This is an account of results from a survey of Georgia child care providers to identify challenges faced as a result of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Reported topics include: patterns of closing or remaining open in center-based and home-based settings, the immediate need for cashflow, changes to blended/braided funding streams, loss of income from families, and the needs of families as expressed to child care providers.

October 2020

As part of the PDG B-5’s work during the COVID-19 pandemic the Georgia Department of Early Care and Learning (DECAL) collaborated with the University of Georgia’s Carl Vinson Institute of Government (Institute of Government) to gather input from licensed early care and learning providers in Georgia regarding their COVID-related needs and experiences applying for Short Term Assistance Benefit for Licensed Entities (STABLE) funds. Institute of Government staff conducted a web-based survey of licensed early care and learning providers from July 7 until July 29, 2020. Survey questions covered three general topics: 1) operational status, 2) provider needs, and 3) the STABLE Grant. This report serves to share findings from the 32-item survey of licensed early care and learning providers. (author abstract)

May 2021

Georgia’s Pre-Kindergarten Program (Georgia’s Pre-K) is one of the first state-funded universal pre-K programs in the nation. The program is offered to all 4-year-olds in the state (making it universal) but contains yearly “caps” on enrollment subject to appropriation. High-quality early learning programs can help students do well in elementary school and have been shown to improve school grades and social-emotional skills for years following. While policymakers in Georgia are rightly concerned with the program’s ability to prepare students for Kindergarten, there is also little available evidence on whether the state is providing an adequate dollar amount to the program to, for instance, increase enrollment. This report summarizes a survey of pre-K program directors on the expenses they incur, their perspectives on the adequacy of state funds to meet student needs and the effects of COVID-19. (author abstract)

April 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated many challenges for Head Start families – making the program’s role even more important. To better understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Head Start families and identify opportunities to strengthen the relationship between Head Start programs, managers, and health care professionals, Georgia Early Education Alliance for Ready Students (GEEARS) and Voices for Georgia's Children (Voices), in collaboration with the Georgia chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Georgia Head Start Collaboration Office, conducted six focus groups—three with Family Support Managers and Health Managers and three with Head Start parents. (author abstract)

September 2021

In July 2021, GEEARS: Georgia Early Education Alliance for Ready Students commissioned a statewide survey of 400 Georgia parents with children ages 0-4 that focused on a range of topics including childcare arrangements and satisfaction levels, general attitudes toward, perceptions of, and preferences for child care, and financial and employment impacts in relation to child care during these unprecedented times. (author abstract)

Hawaii

July 2020

This document reports findings of a survey that looked at parents' reopening preferences concerning child care and afterschool programs in Hawaii.

May 2020

This document reports findings of a survey that looked at parents' 2020 summer plans for child care and summer programs in Hawaii.

November 2020

To better understand the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on Hawaii’s child care industry and our families' ability to access needed child care, Early Childhood Action Strategy and PATCH, Hawaii's statewide child care resource and referral agency, reviewed data received from a survey of regulated child care providers. (author abstract)

October 2020

To better understand the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on Hawaii's child care industry and our families' ability to access needed child care Early Childhood Action Strategy and PATCH, Hawaii's statewide child care resource and referral agency, reviewed data received from a survey of regulated child care providers. (author abstract)

June 2020

In collaboration with early childhood partners, Early Childhood Action Strategy members conducted focus group sessions with both home-based and center-based providers on all islands across the state to assess: 1. What are their most pressing concerns with meeting the child care guidelines; 2. Whether they?ll be applying for the Emergency Child Care Services Contract and what those funds will be utilized for and support; and 3. Whether additional financial (or other) supports are needed to help them sustain over the course of the next 6 months to a year. The Data Section of this report is separated by Family Child Care and Center-Based responses. (author abstract)

Iowa

July 2020

The Iowa Department of Human Services collected information from Iowa child care and preschool businesses from July 1st - 10th and received 1544 electronically completed surveys. (author abstract)

April 2020

The Iowa Department of Human Services (DHS) conducted a survey of child care providers from April 10-17, 2020 to learn more about the current status of providers and what assistance providers needed to remain open or to reopen their child care business. We are sharing the survey results with you and want to thank providers for taking time to complete the survey. There were 1,983 surveys completed with at least one survey completed in all 99 Iowa counties. 42% of respondents work in center-based child care or preschools and 58% work in family child care homes. Of the respondents, 76% reported that the facility is open and 24% reported that the facility is temporarily closed. Of the facilities that are open, 51% reported having openings to accept children. Many respondents indicated that the openings available were 'temporary' until their regular families returned to work and needed child care again or the openings are reserved for children of essential care workers. When asked if the business/organization had experienced a financial loss as a result of the public health emergency (COVID-19), 60% said 'Yes' and 20% said 'Not yet, but I expect to.' Of providers experiencing a financial loss, 61% reported the loss between $0 – $5,000 and 16% reported a loss between $5,001 – $10,000. (author abstract)

Illinois

November 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a great deal of stress on families with children and their communities. At Illinois Action for Children, the child care referral teams who help parents find child care wanted a systematic way to collect and communicate some of the stories they had been hearing regarding the effect of the pandemic on families and their child care. Working with Illinois Action for Children’s research team, they developed a survey questionnaire and called Cook County parents who had used their referral services over the past year. Calls were made in June and July 2020, collecting 144 surveys. These parent surveys are intended to be Part 1 of an on-going series of conversations with the parents. In future months, the referral teams will complete in-depth interviews with a subset of the parents to follow up on how the families are faring over time. What follows is a summary of the survey results. We note that this is not a random sample of parents and is not necessarily representative of the experience of all Cook County parents. It does, however, reflect the thoughtful responses of a large group of parents who had challenges with employment and child care during and just after the emergency period. (author abstract)

May 2021

This report is Part II of a three-part series on the impact of COVID-19 on Cook County families. It is based on interviews conducted by the referrals and outreach team at Illinois Action for Children (IAFC). This team connects families to child care and community resources and hears firsthand how families have been affected by the pandemic. With the goal of formally documenting family experiences, the team began the project by surveying 144 parents in the summer of 2020 about their employment, child care, family well-being and children’s schooling under the pandemic. The results are captured in Part I of this report series. For this report, Part II, the IAFC referrals and outreach team conducted more in-depth interviews with a subset of the parents – 26 mothers - to learn how they were faring four to five months later, in November 2020. The mothers’ experiences are summarized below. Looking ahead, Part III of the series will capture the experiences and perspectives of this same subset of mothers’ in the spring of 2021, a full year into the pandemic. (author abstract)

October 2021

The Referrals and Outreach team at Illinois Action for Children (IAFC) followed Cook County parents for almost a year to learn about families’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey and two in-depth interviews developed by the Referrals and Outreach and Research teams focused on employment, child care, family well-being and children’s schooling during the pandemic. We capture the results from this three-part series in two previous reports and the current report. (author abstract)

Indiana

November 2020

The Indiana Early Learning Advisory Committee (ELAC) decided to shift the focus of this year’s report to the impact that the national public health crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic has had on early care and education. While the pandemic and its effects are ongoing this report provides a point-in-time understanding of the impacts as of June 30 and offers possible solutions to strengthen early care and education in our state. (author abstract)

September 2021

This study sought to measure early childhood educators’ personal physical, emotional and financial stress impact related to the onset of the COVID-19 global pandemic in Indiana. More research on early childhood educator stress and well-being is needed to fill a gap in the literature, especially as a national pandemic has placed unavoidable amounts of new stressors on the ECCE workforce. (author abstract)

Kentucky

June 2020

The Kentucky Child Care Provider Survey was conducted in partnership with United Way of Kentucky Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence, Kentucky Youth Advocates, Child Care Advocates of Kentucky, Metro United Way, Learning Grove, and United Way of Greater Cincinnati. This workgroup is committed to the success of children, families, and child care providers. In partnership, we are pleased to present the findings of this survey of more than 1,500 child care providers across the Commonwealth of Kentucky. (author abstract)

January 2021

From November 16th through December 18th 2020, we asked Kentucky parents and families to share their thoughts and concerns about the continuing impact on child care of the COVID-19 pandemic. Over 1,400 responded. The survey was also provided in a Spanish translation. (author abstract)

July 2020

From June 24th through July 14th we asked Kentucky parents and families to share their thoughts about child care and what’s next as Kentucky reopens the economy. Over 1500 responded. Their responses will hopefully help child care providers, community leaders, and policy makers better understand child care needs and plan for a future that ensures a high-quality, sustainable child care ecosystem. (author abstract)

Louisiana

July 2020

This report presents findings from the Study of Early Education in Louisiana (SEE-LA) COVID-19 Teacher Survey, which was fielded between April 20 and May 29 in Jefferson and Rapides, two large Louisiana parishes. Echoing national and state-wide data, most child care sites in Jefferson and Rapides closed for at least some period of time following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic: 75% of sites represented in our data reported closing at least temporarily (e.g., Bassok, Markowitz, Smith, & Kiscaden, 2020; Guidry, 2020). The SEE-LA COVID-19 Teacher Survey aimed to better understand how child care teachers experienced COVID-19. The survey is part of a longstanding collaboration with the Louisiana Department of Education, the Jefferson Parish Early Childhood Collaborative, and the Rapides Early Childhood Network. All child care teachers who were working in a publicly-subsidized child care center in the fall of 2019 were invited to participate, including lead and assistant teachers, floaters, and other staff. (author abstract)

June 2020

This report presents results from the Study of Early Education in Louisiana (SEE-LA) COVID-19 Leader Survey, which avoids this limitation by drawing on an established research-practice partnership, inviting all publicly-funded child care programs operating in two geographic areas (Jefferson and Rapides parishes in Louisiana) to participate, and achieving a substantially higher response rate than previous COVID-19 surveys. The survey was conducted in collaboration with the Louisiana Department of Education, the Jefferson Early Childhood Collaborative, and the Rapides Early Childhood Network. (author abstract)

May 2020

The second survey of child care providers was conducted April 13 - 20, 2020, while Louisiana remained under a stay-at-home order, and K-12 school closures were extended through the remainder of the school year. The survey again asked child care providers what impact COVID-19 had on their program or business, including financial losses and closure decisions, and what supports were needed to help providers respond to the public health crisis. Additional questions about open centers and what specific supports closed centers would need to reopen were added. (author abstract)

April 2020

LPIC conducted a survey of child care providers in Louisiana from March 16-23, 2020, in partnership with Agenda for Children, Childcare Connections for Northeast Louisiana, Louisiana Association of United Ways, Northwestern State University, On Track by 5 Alliance, Pointe Coupee Early Childhood Coalition, United Way of Southeast Louisiana, and Volunteers of America. The survey asked child care providers what impact COVID-19 is having on their program or business, including financial losses and closure decisions, and what supports are needed to help providers respond to the public health crisis. It was shared by the Louisiana Department of Education during several informational webinars held during the survey window and emailed by the Child Care Association of Louisiana and Agenda for Children directly to providers throughout the state. (author abstract)

April 2020

LPIC, Agenda for Children, and the United Way of Southeast Louisiana conducted a survey of child care providers in southeast Louisiana from March 16-23, 2020. The survey asked these providers what impact COVID-19 is having on their program or business, including financial losses and closure decisions, and what supports are needed to help providers respond to the public health crisis. It was sent directly to providers and the Louisiana Department of Education encouraged providers to complete the survey during several informational webinars during the survey window. (author abstract)

March 2021

This report details the findings of the fourth survey of child care providers, conducted January 13 - 27, 2021, while Louisiana remained in Phase Two of reopening. In Phase Two, ratios and group sizes for early care and education providers returned to pre-pandemic levels for children ages 2 and under. Ratios and group sizes for children ages 3 and up increased from Phase One levels, but remained below pre-pandemic allowances. The survey again asked child care providers what impact COVID-19 was having on their program or business, including financial losses, temporary closures, challenges faced, and continued funding needs. (author abstract)

January 2021

To learn more about how Louisiana families with children under the age of 5 have been impacted by, and managed during, the COVID-19 pandemic, LPIC, with partners, conducted a survey of Louisiana parents and guardians in the fall of 2020. Partners included Agenda for Children, Louisiana Department of Education, New Orleans Campaign for Grade-Level Reading, Urban League of Louisiana, and Women United of Southeast Louisiana. (author abstract)

August 2020

The third survey was conducted June 15 - 22, 2020. At this time, under Phase Two of reopening, ratios and group sizes for early care and education providers returned to pre-pandemic levels for children ages 2 and under. Teacher-to-child ratios and group sizes for children ages 3 and up increased from Phase One levels, but remained below pre-pandemic allowances. The survey again asked child care providers what impact COVID-19 was having on their program or business, including financial losses and closure decisions, and what supports were needed to help providers respond to the public health crisis. Additional questions about reopened centers and government grant programs were added. (author abstract)

April 2021

Much has been written about the impact of COVID-19 on teaching and learning in K-12 education, including the challenges of remote learning and increasing educational inequities, but there has been less focus on how COVID-19 has altered teaching and learning in ECE. Children’s early learning experiences shape their skills at kindergarten entry and can have lasting effects. Understanding how COVID-19 impacted the experiences and learning of the youngest learners is vital as the nation begins to recover from the pandemic and teachers work to meet children’s individual needs in the classroom. This report aims to fill this gap using survey data from 518 teachers working with children ages 3-5 in child care centers and school-based settings in Louisiana. It describes the impact of COVID-19 on teaching and learning in ECE classrooms and highlights differences depending on whether teachers were teaching primarily in person versus remotely (e.g., through online class meetings, video lessons, or learning packets sent home) or in a hybrid of remote and in person teaching. (author abstract)

March 2021

We compared teacher emotional wellbeing, financial wellbeing and job commitment before and during COVID both overall and separately for child care and school-based pre-k sites using data from the fall 2019 and 2020 waves of the Study of Early Education in Louisiana Workforce Survey. In both years, surveys were sent to all teachers working with children ages 0-5, not yet in kindergarten working in publicly-funded child care and school-based state pre-k sites. In 2020, surveys were sent to sites that were open and providing care, either remotely or in-person. (author abstract)

June 2021

This report takes a closer look at child care staffing issues in the wake of COVID using data from three large Louisiana parishes collected in the fall of 2020. In these communities, leaders of all child care sites that receive any public funding were invited to respond to the Study of Early Education in Louisiana leader survey. At least one leader in 110 child care sites responded, representing over 60% of publicly funded child care sites. The survey’s well-defined sample, detailed questions about staffing, and high response rate provide a unique opportunity to understand the multiple challenges leaders faced staffing their sites during COVID. (author abstract)

March 2021

This brief uses survey data collected in the fall of 2020 to describe the concerns that early educators from three Louisiana parishes—Jefferson, Orleans, and Rapides—have about COVID in their workplace. It then outlines the emotional and financial wellbeing of these educators, and highlights major differences in the experiences of teachers in child care settings versus schools. (author abstract)

Massachusetts

October 2020

The Massachusetts Commission on the Status of Women (MCSW) has collected and now reports data on the impact of COVID-19 on women and girls across the Commonwealth. The MCSW recognizes the critical importance that child care and education play in the lives of women and has thus conducted targeted research through a survey with over 4000 respondents and a public hearing conducted on September 15 with representation from over 300 municipalities from across the Commonwealth. The MCSW issues this report pursuant to our statutory authority to report on the status of women in the Commonwealth. (author abstract)

September 2020

This report presents key and detailed findings from a survey, conducted August 13-26, 2020, of 599 parents of young children in Massachusetts. It looks at childcare utilization and expected arrangements for the fall of 2020, by type of care, ethnicity, and household income.

August 2020

This report describes the experiences of early educators and caregivers of 3- and 4-year-old children in family child care, community-based center, Head Start, and public school prekindergarten programs during the first few months of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Massachusetts. Nearly 700 individuals working with young children and their families across the state offered insights into program operations; use of public supports; remote engagement with children and families; and personal wellbeing in the midst of the pandemic. (author abstract)

June 2020

This survey was designed for the parents of young children (age birth through five) in Massachusetts. The survey has 2363 total responses to date and the participants are from various regions across the Commonwealth (see below). Their experiences during the Coronavirus pandemic and perspectives on reopening will help advocates and government officials plan for the future. (author abstract)

December 2020

This report includes data analysis of results from a survey of licensed early education and care providers in Massachusetts. It focused on enrollment and attendance, operational capacity, and demand.

November 2020

This report provides results from a Massachusetts early education workforce survey in which directors and teachers responded with their concerns in the following areas: workforce stress, operational stress, and financial strain.

November 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has added new challenges to Boston families’ abilities to address their child care needs. This project was designed (1) to uncover families’ child care preferences, (2) identify the factors that drive these preferences, and (3) learn how families are handling work and child care issues during the pandemic. In the summer of 2020, Dr. Kimberly D. Lucas and Dr. Wendy Wagner Robeson conducted focus groups and interviews with 24 parents/guardians from the City of Boston who have at least one child not yet enrolled in kindergarten. (author abstract)

October 2020

The following data was gathered in September 2020 from traditionally after-school programs that became early adopters and implementers of school-age learning pods offered during the school day and out of school time (OST). The providers that participated in this survey have been operating pods since the 2020-21 school year commenced. This brief details common challenges and recommendations identified by these programs. It highlights five areas of greatest concern: Staffing Daily Operations, Communication, Wraparound Supports, and Technology and Equipment. (author abstract)

July 2020

This report provides results from a Massachusetts early education survey of providers who rely primarily on parent-paid tuition models. Areas of focus include staff compensation program capacity and quality, and financial operating strategies.

November 2020

This is the first of two briefs the Birth to Eight Collaborative will publish following our 2019 first annual landscape of early childhood education and care programs in Boston. In this brief we report on important questions to help monitor the long-term impact of the COVID pandemic on our local child-care sector. (author abstract)

March 2021

This brief is part of an ongoing study that is tracking implementation of the Boston Universal Prekindergarten (UPK) expansion, including effects of the COVID-19 crisis on UPK community-based centers. We use administrative and interview data to provide a descriptive snapshot of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on UPK centers so far, focusing on three areas: teacher and administrator turnover; child enrollment; and changes in practices that centers are implementing to increase safety. Unlike many programs across the country, UPK centers have continued to receive full funding for UPK slots and for child-care subsidy slots throughout the crisis. As such, the effects we describe here likely represent a “best case” scenario for centers operating in urban areas serving mostly children from families with low incomes. (author abstract)

Maryland

June 2020

MFN conducted a survey of child care providers in Maryland from May 5 to May 15, 2020. The survey asked child care providers what impact COVID-19 is having on their program, including financial losses and closure decisions, and what supports are needed to help providers respond to the public health crisis. The survey was distributed by MFN to our database of regulated providers, Maryland's Network of Child Care Resource Centers, Maryland State Department of Education, and the state's child care associations. We posted the link to the survey on our social media outlets. We received a significant response rate representing 41.6% of all regulated sites in Maryland. (author abstract)

March 2021

In January of 2021 MFN followed up with the same child care providers to find out how they are faring now and received a total response rate of 28 percent. The current survey data indicates that 79 percent say they have experienced a financial loss due to the COVID-19. That number increased from 67 percent back in April of 2020. On average child care programs report paying out $5,339 per month for personal protective equipment, enhanced cleaning routines, and other pandemic related costs to keep children and staff safe. Forty nine percent of child care programs predict that they may close for good if parents must keep children home for another six months. (author abstract)

September 2021

This research brief provides a summary of findings from a survey of parents in Maryland conducted in the fall of 2020 to examine child care needs, access, continuity, and costs for infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and school-age children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was distributed to families receiving child care scholarships and to families with children enrolled in licensed child care in Maryland. This parent survey was conducted on behalf of the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) by researchers at Child Trends as part of the Maryland Child Care Policy Research Partnership funded by the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (author abstract)

Maine

June 2020

This is a report on the results of a survey of changes to Maine child care centers and home-based child care providers in the first few months of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Over 600 of the state's 1,675 licensed programs responded to an online questionnaire in June of 2020. Data were collected and analyzed on revenue, costs, use of emergency relief, staffing, and projected financial needs of providers.

Michigan

August 2020

Businesses of all sizes have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Organizations that could operate remotely altered their operations and working parents quickly adjusted to the reality of managing work and child care needs simultaneously. As the school year begins and school districts make decisions on how they will educate students, either through in-person, virtual, or hybrid options, working parents and caregivers now face the challenge of how to manage both work and educational responsibilities. To understand the impacts this will have on the workforce, the Detroit Regional Chamber surveyed businesses on employee concerns and plans for mitigating child care challenges in the unprecedented reality that is COVID-19. The survey of nearly 100 respondents was conducted on August 5-14, 2020, via an online surveying tool. (author abstract)

Minnesota

June 2020

Between April 14 and May 28, 2020, staff from Think Small attempted to contact every licensed family child care and center-based program in Ramsey and Hennepin counties (n= 1,693) to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their programs and the families they serve. The contact list was pulled from the state's NACCRRAware database of licensed programs as of December 31, 2019. Staff attempted to reach each provider three times via the phone number listed in their licensing data. A total of 943 calls were completed (56% of all programs; family child care = 557; centers = 386), and each provider reached was asked the same short set of questions. (author abstract)

December 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed child care services in Minnesota and across the nation. To understand providers’ experiences with the pandemic, an online survey was shared with child care providers between July 31, 2020 and September 9, 2020. A total of 1,898 center-based and family child care providers completed the survey. The survey asked child care providers* about their experiences related to a number of COVID-19 challenges. This fact sheet presents initial findings on provider’s confidence in practices related to COVID-19. (author abstract)

March 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed child care services in Minnesota and across the nation. To understand providers’ experiences during the pandemic, an online survey was shared with child care providers between July 31, 2020 and September 9, 2020. A total of 1,898 center-based and family child care providers completed the survey. The survey asked child care providers about their experiences related to a number of COVID-19 challenges. This fact sheet presents initial findings on financial challenges and personal well-being during COVID-19. (author abstract)

June 2021

In July of 2021, NAEYC conducted an online survey of over 7,500 self-selected child care, Head Start, and pre-K workers who responded to emails on listservs and other electronic communications. Respondents were asked to rank common challenges faced by programs and providers in perceived order of importance as experienced in the summer of 2021. The data is analyzed and findings are discussed on two topics: the impact of COVID-19 relief funding, and challenges related to staff retention, recruitment, and compensation. Suggestions are presented related to the continued use of of COVID-19 temporary subsidy policies to address longer-term problems.

June 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed child care services in Minnesota and across the nation. To help providers withstand the financial burden caused by the pandemic, Minnesota created the Peacetime Emergency Child Care Grant program (PECC) and distributed the first round of funds in April through June 2020. More information about eligibility requirements and a summary of the applicants and awards by round can be found at https://www.childcareawaremn.org/providers/emergency-child-caregrants/. This fact sheet presents findings on characteristics of rural and urban center-based applicants to the Peacetime Emergency Child Care Grant. (author abstract)

March 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed child care services in Minnesota and across the nation. To help providers withstand the financial burden caused by the pandemic, Minnesota created the Peacetime Emergency Child Care Grant program (PECC) and distributed the first round of funds in April through June 2020. More information about eligibility requirements and a summary of the applicants and awards by round can be found at https://www.childcareawaremn.org/providers/emergency-child-caregrants/. This fact sheet presents initial findings on characteristics of family child care applicants and family child care non-applicants to the Peacetime Emergency Child Care Grant. (author abstract)

March 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed child care services in Minnesota and across the nation. To help providers withstand the financial burden caused by the pandemic, Minnesota created the Peacetime Emergency Child Care Grant program (PECC) and distributed the first round of funds in April through June 2020. More information about eligibility requirements and a summary of the applicants and awards by round can be found at https://www.childcareawaremn.org/providers/emergency-child-caregrants/. This fact sheet presents initial findings on characteristics of center-based applicants and center-based non-applicants to the Peacetime Emergency Child Care Grant. (author abstract)

November 2021

We invited Minnesota child care providers to complete a survey in the summer of 2020. Using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7 (GAD-7) scale, we asked respondents questions regarding the levels of anxiety they may have been experiencing at that time, as well as other aspects of their experience of the pandemic and program operations. This brief summarizes key findings from this survey. We offer considerations for policymakers who are dedicating federal, state, and local resources to supporting the child care field, including individual providers’ mental health. (author abstract)

Missouri

August 2020

As part of its work to inform and assist families child care programs, and the community, CCAMO tracked the number of child care programs across the State that were open prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. To understand the impact of the pandemic in Missouri, CCAMO mined and analyzed its own internal data to determine factors affecting child care. (author abstract)

November 2020

We garnered insights from four ECE providers serving LMI communities about the impact COVID-19 is having on their sector. These findings revealed several major challenges for providers—deficiencies in public support and investments, decreases in capacity and demand for services, increases in operational costs and need for cleaning supplies, and added anxiety and trauma among children and their communities. (author abstract)

Mississippi

May 2020

In May 2020 the University of Mississippi's Center for Research Evaluation (CERE) surveyed 1,220 licensed childcare centers. Our goal was to understand how the COVID19 pandemic affected their operations. Between May 5 and 11, 425 (35%) Mississippi-based center directors responded to our online survey. In this report we share their needs and data on how CARES Act funds may be most useful. (author abstract)

Montana

September 2020

From January through April of 2020 University of Montana's Bureau of Business and Economic Research (BBER) conducted a survey to examine the economic impact inadequate child care has on Montana parents, employers and taxpayers. The survey was paid for by the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. The survey randomly sampled Montana households with children ages 0-5. BBER collected data from 404 Montana households. The responses are weighted so the results reflect the statewide population of households with children ages 0-5. Most respondents replied prior to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Montana. Responses received after the pandemic were not substantially different than those received before the pandemic. (author abstract)

April 2020

COVID-19 has changed the way of life for families in Montana, and to help coordinate local and state responses, Zero to Five surveyed families across Montana to gather information on their experiences. The COVID-19 Family Impact Survey was conducted April 2-10, 2020. Zero to Five utilized a non-probability sample to collect the data. While this survey does not provide a representative sample, it offers an expedited view of how the pandemic has impacted Montana families. (author abstract)

North Carolina

July 2020

A statewide survey was undertaken to understand how early childhood educators sought to navigate this transition to remote learning focusing on the teachers who administer the North Carolina Pre-Kindergarten (NC Pre-K) program—North Carolina's flagship early childhood education program. Building on a previous survey of NC Pre-K site administrators and contract administrators conducted in May 2020, the current survey focused on the experiences of teachers who provided NC Pre-K program services. The survey was designed to collect information regarding (1) teachers' transitions to remote learning, (2) the remote learning services teachers provided during the statewide quarantine, and (3) teachers' efficacy in providing remote learning services. That information is summarized in this report. Survey results were also used to identify recommendations to further support teachers in providing remote learning services. (author abstract)

May 2020

The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (NCDHHS), Division of Child Development and Early Education (DCDEE) sought to learn what NC Pre-K program staff were doing to provide remote learning services during the COVID-19 emergency and where they needed more support. DCDEE administered separate surveys to representatives of NC Pre-K sites and to NC Pre-K contractors during the week of April 20, 2020, to collect relevant information that is summarized in this report. The surveys gathered information about local communication and remote learning strategies, technology capabilities and challenges. This report summarizes the information captured in the surveys and highlights the voices of staff sharing their perspectives through open-ended responses. Survey results will also be used to identify ways that DCDEE can provide timely and ongoing support. (author abstract)

April 2020

On April 20, Child Care Services Association released an online survey to North Carolina child care programs about their experiences applying for CARES Act funds. Five-hundred twenty-six (526) child care programs (licensed centers and child care homes) responded to the survey, out of 4,568 child care programs across North Carolina who received the survey via email. (author abstract)

December 2020

In this Report we investigate the economic consequences of early childhood education in North Carolina. Early education and child care systems encompass a range of providers and programs for children from birth up to kindergarten entry. We show how this system influences the employment and incomes of working families. Critically, we analyze how the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has affected early education and in turn work opportunities for parents across North Carolina. Our analysis draws on a new survey – conducted state-wide in the Fall of 2020 – on over 800 working families. (author abstract)

March 2021

COVID-19 has created acute challenges for the child care sector, potentially leading to a shortage of supply and a shrinking sector as the economy recovers. This study provides the first comprehensive, census-level evaluation of the medium-term impacts of COVID-19 on the county child care market in a large and diverse state, North Carolina. We also document the disproportionate impacts of COVID-19 on different types of providers and disadvantaged communities. We use data from two time points (February and December) from 2018 to 2020 and a difference-in-differences design to isolate the effects of COVID-19. We find that COVID- 19 reduced county-level child care enrollment by 40%, and reduced the number of providers by 2%. Heterogeneity analyses reveal that family child care providers experienced not only less severe reductions in enrollment and closures than center providers, but a small growth in the number of family providers. Declines in enrollment were most substantial for preschool-aged children. COVID-19 did not appear to further exacerbate inequities in terms of enrollment amongst low-income communities, communities with a larger share of Black residents, or rural communities, although communities with a larger share of Hispanic residents had more provider closures. Our findings underscore the importance of family child care providers in the child care sector and providing continuing and targeted support to help the sector through this crisis. Implications for future policies are discussed. (author abstract)

July 2021

In June 2021, CCSA reached out to all child care programs that were awarded Phase II CCSA COVID-19 Relief Fund grants and interviewed administrators at 17 of the 41 programs (41 percent). We received a higher response rate than expected. We anticipated speaking to eight programs (20 percent) because child care program administrators are very busy, and a year had passed since child care programs applied for the grant. The high response rate may indicate child care programs are eager to share their stories. Throughout the interviews, grantees remarked on the stress and challenges of the past year and expressed the gratitude they felt that CCSA acknowledged their contributions to communities and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. This report discusses key themes that emerged from the interviews, with a focus on the impact of CCSA COVID-19 Relief Fund Phase II grants on child care programs, how grantees are faring one year after applying for funds, and grantees’ plans moving forward. (author abstract)

North Dakota

December 2020

In an effort to better understand the impact that these disruptions have had on families, Child Care Aware of North Dakota, in partnership with and on behalf of the state of North Dakota, surveyed families from around the state over a two week period in October 2020. The following information reflects the voices of 2,446 parents and caregivers with children from birth through age 12 in North Dakota – from every county in the state. (author abstract)

Nebraska

August 2020

The Nebraska COVID-19 Early Care and Education Provider Survey II, released in early August 2020, is a second survey following The Nebraska COVID-19 Early Care and Education Provider Survey that was conducted in March 2020. Both surveys were conducted by the Buffett Early Childhood Institute at the University of Nebraska. Results from the March 2020 survey suggested that the coronavirus was negatively impacting early care and education professionals in Nebraska. Imminent threats of illness and directives for enhanced cleaning and precautionary methods (e.g., social distancing) were causing child care providers to experience high levels of stress. They were struggling to access accurate information and cleaning supplies and were fearful of the economic repercussions of decreasing enrollment and/or closure. Nebraska's agencies, philanthropies, and local communities mobilized to provide resources, and federal funding was made available to small businesses via the CARES act. This second survey examined how licensed family home-based and center-based child care providers in Nebraska have accessed financial supports, how they are coping in the midst of an ongoing pandemic, and what they still need to provide the essential service of early care and education. The current survey, administered in mid-June 2020 to licensed child care providers across Nebraska, reveals a resilient and dedicated workforce struggling economically and coping with very high levels of stress. (author abstract)

April 2020

The Nebraska COVID-19 Early Care and Education Provider Survey was designed to capture the perspectives of those providing early care and education in the early days of the pandemic. The goal of the survey was to identify provider needs and policy recommendations that could respond to those needs. Two primary questions were addressed: 1. How are early care and education providers experiencing the effects of COVID-19? 2. Based on providers' experiences, what are some urgent needs and policy recommendations? Composed of 12 multiple-response items and one open-ended item, the survey was released on March 20, 2020 via multiple social media channels, partner organizations, and agencies. Within a week, 2,100 responses were received from professionals representing a variety of roles in early care and education. More than 750 providers responded to the prompt to "share any information or concerns you may have about the effects of the coronavirus on your child care program/business." (author abstract)

New Jersey

October 2020

As New Jersey tentatively reopens K-12 schools after being closed for over five months, many of the state's child care providers have remained open throughout the COVID-19 pandemic to serve the children of essential workers. Throughout this time, providers have been required to observe more restrictive group sizes and child/staff ratios, while also increasing time and resources spent on cleaning and sanitizing, to prevent the spread of COVID-19. With unchanged tuition rates, these new standards quickly push many child care providers from an already tight financial situation into one that cannot be sustained. This paper examines in-depth the impact of new and existing regulations on child care providers' revenues and expenditures, and the subsidy rates required to financially sustain child care providers in New Jersey. (author abstract)

September 2020

This study was funded by The Nicholson Foundation and conducted by the FDU Poll. The online survey was designed to provide estimates of adults in New Jersey with children age 35 months and younger. The survey was conducted August 17-24, 2020 with 914 adults residing in New Jersey. (author abstract)

April 2020

ACNJ developed a short child care survey and on March 20th sent it to center-based and family child care providers throughout the state. Most of the 300+ survey responses were received in the first five days after the initial distribution. Survey responses came from all of New Jersey's 21 counties with 85 percent representing center-based providers and six percent representing family child care. Approximately 79 percent of the respondents accepted child care subsidies. On March 25, 2020, Governor Murphy signed Executive Order 110, which directed the closure of all child care centers except for those on federal property or military bases, family-based centers caring for five or fewer children, and any centers that registered to provide emergency child care services solely to essential personnel. More than 600 center-based child care programs were certified to provide emergency child care for essential employees. While the survey results reflect the state of child care prior to the Governor's Executive Order, the findings demonstrate the continued economic fragility of center-based and family child care throughout New Jersey. (author abstract)

September 2020

To understand the project’s impact and return on investment, Luminary Evaluation Group was engaged to conduct a survey of home-based childcare providers as well as the coaches, advocates, and administrators who may have accessed the resources or received technical assistance. A total of 293 providers and 14 coaches, advocates, and administrators (also referred to as “intermediaries” throughout the report) completed the respective surveys. Three observations were made on the Home Grown project based on the survey data collected, as well as findings from the August 2020 Final Project Summary report issued by Civitas Strategies that captures the outcomes of PPP technical assistance in Mercer, Passaic, and Essex counties. (author abstract)

September 2021

This brief reports on the responses of district leaders in one state that offers state-funded preschool (New Jersey) on how they supported preschool learning at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Schools in New Jersey were closed to in-person instruction beginning March 18, 2020, and stayed closed for the remainder of the 2019-20 school year, requiring preschool programs to adapt instruction accordingly. (author abstract)

September 2021

The Covid-19 pandemic upended the nation’s child care system and New Jersey is no exception. Over the last year, the Infant and Toddler Policy Research Center at the National Institute for Early Education Research (ITC@NIEER) conducted three surveys of parents of infants and toddlers (children under age 3) about their use of (non-parental) child care. The surveys were conducted in August 2020, February 2021, and June 2021 and were designed to represent New Jersey’s population of parents of infants and toddlers. The August 2020 survey also asked about use of child care prior to the Covid-19 pandemic. This data snapshot summarizes findings from simple analyses and from more complex models used to estimate changes in the use of infant and toddler child care over time beginning prior to March 2020. (author abstract)

New Mexico

June 2020

Close to 800 people across diverse locations in New Mexico gave answers to this survey, most were early childhood professionals with parents and family members as the second largest group. (author abstract)

New York

July 2020

This research brief is a follow-up to the snapshot report: Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 on New York's Early Childhood System which was based upon a survey sent to participants in the Aspire Registry New York's early childhood workforce data system, in early May 2020. The purpose of this survey was to understand how New York's ECE field was faring during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to inform planning for how to support the workforce, and therefore children and families, through the ongoing health crisis. Understanding the Impact provided a descriptive snapshot that raised reflective questions about the field's needs in the areas of: (1) emotional well-being, (2) programs' reopening and economic assistance, (3) individuals' economic support needs, and (4) issues around developmentally meaningful remote care and instruction. This survey, along with others conducted by the Day Care Council, Raising New York, and the National and New York State Associations for the Education of Young Children provide a comprehensive portrait of the challenges facing the early care and education system throughout New York State. In this brief we focus on the issues and opportunities related to educators' emotional well-being that were identified in the survey. (author abstract)

June 2020

This report describes and examines the current operations of a sample of ECCs located in community-based organizations and FCC programs. Cleaning practices, drop-off and pick-up policies, masks, playtime, and food are all discussed in the context of preventing the spread of COVID-19. This report synthesizes 13 interviews into set of key findings and recommendations to be considered in the discussion of reopening New York City's early education system. (author abstract)

June 2020

To understand the impact of COVID-19 on New York's early childhood workforce, the New York Early Childhood Professional Development Institute and Bank Street College of Education partnered to administer a survey with members of the Aspire Registry. The survey strives to capture the perspectives of early childhood program leaders, teachers, and family child care providers about their experiences with the COVID-19 pandemic to inform policy and practice. In this report, we highlight descriptive data pertaining to our study participants, their current program status, remote instruction approaches, employment status, and personal well-being. We conclude with a discussion that contextualizes the findings and raises opportunity to inform ongoing discussion with stakeholders from across the field. (author abstract)

April 2020

The results of our statewide survey on the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on parents with infants and toddlers (author abstract)

October 2020

As we looked more closely at the survey data it became clear that FCC providers’ experiences were a little different from other early childhood educators’, experiences which we clustered into four themes: Forgotten Frontline Workers, Committed, Resilient, and Getting Organized. While the findings we report cannot be used to draw conclusions about all FCC providers in New York because they are not based upon a representative sample, these findings do have relevance to conversations about better recognizing and supporting the FCC providers who have truly been forgotten front line workers during this pandemic. (author abstract)

Ohio

May 2020

The data compiled here is based on responses to a survey distributed created by Groundwork Ohio and distributed through the organization's online communications, including the Groundwork website, enewsletter, and social media. Additional organizations such as local child care initiatives and child care resource and referral associations encouraged programs to participate as well. As of April 7, 2020, 590 child care providers have completed the survey, representing 75 of Ohio's 88 counties. Response rates vary greatly by region. (author abstract)

December 2020

This report examines the state of child care in Central Ohio, based on a survey conducted September – October 2020 of providers from both child care centers and family child care homes. In particular, it focused on the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 crisis and solicited suggestions for necessary actions and interventions.

December 2020

The study team analyzed statewide Serious Incident Reporting data submitted by child care programs to ODJFS to examine trends in COVID-19 cases among child care staff and children. Within the selected 10 counties, the study engaged child care program administrators, staff, parents and caregivers to better understand approaches to mitigate COVID-19 transmission and overall experiences with child care during a phase of the pandemic when COVID-19 transmission rates were relatively low. (author abstract)

Oregon

July 2020

Following the evolving pandemic and as Oregon reopens ELD gathered input through a survey for parents and caregivers. This short survey included a series of questions on the health and safety precautions in child care needed to help families feel comfortable during COVID-19. Of the 3598 total respondents, 3,060 of the respondents are parents and other family members who have a child in need of child care. The responses of those 3,060 are summarized below. (author abstract)

May 2020

From April 22 to May 1 the survey was available on the ELD website and sent to child care stakeholders to distribute to child care providers. The survey was available in English, Spanish, Russian, Vietnamese, Traditional Chinese, and Simplified Chinese. There was a total of 1,631 respondents: 1,487 in English, 128 in Spanish, and 16 in Russian. The survey asked for provider characteristics and demographics to determine how well the survey sample represented Oregon child care providers. Closed (e.g. multiple choice) and open-ended questions asked respondents about public health requirements, barriers to reopening, and supports needed. This report presents a brief, initial analysis of data from the survey for immediate use, with more detailed analyses to follow. (author abstract)

March 2021

This report presents the results of a Household Survey that was conducted in Fall 2020 to learn about how the landscape of child care services and supports changed in Oregon during the pandemic and related statewide closures that occurred in the spring, summer and fall of 2020. (author abstract)

June 2021

Drawing on prior work done by the ELD’s Research-to-Practice Partnership with OSLC Developments Incorporated, Portland State University, and Oregon State University, the ELD COVID-19 Early Educator Survey was conducted in March 2021 to provide information about: 1. Whether programs were able to provide any services to children and families during the pandemic and what types of services they were able to provide, 2. The extent of closures of programs (both temporary and permanent) and unemployment in early educators, 3. Whether closures and unemployment had disproportionately affected different types of programs and different early educator job positions, 4. The extent to which early educators had utilized various sources of funding during the pandemic and whether such funding had been helpful in allowing programs to remain open or reopen, 5. What early educators named as potential supports to help them remain open or reopen or remain in the ECE workforce and what they cited as potential barriers to these processes. (author abstract)

Pennsylvania

August 2020

In partnership with the Pennsylvania Office of Child Development and Early Learning (OCDEL) and the PA Key, the Institute of State and Regional Affairs (ISRA) at Penn State Harrisburg conducted a study initially designed to answer four questions: 1. How have child care providers responded to COVID-19, and what are the financial costs? 2. How many child care providers will remain operational without revenue in the next few months? 3. What level of investment is needed for continued operation of child care after restrictions on public movement are lifted? 4. What level of investment is needed to ensure that child care services are accessible to families during a transition period of low demand? The study, led by Philip Sirinides, included a detailed cost analysis, a representative statewide survey of child care providers, and in-depth interviews with child care providers and workers. (author abstract)

Rhode Island

May 2020

On April 9, 2020, DHS administered an online survey in partnership with RIAEYC/BrightStars to all licensed child care providers in RI to understand the impact of this closure period on providers, families and children. Purpose: 1) For state to understand the impact of the COVID-19 child care closure on a) families b) the workforce c) business owners/operators 2) Identify the resources needed for programs to reopen once safe to do so. (author abstract)

January 2021

In Fall 2020, the Department of Human Services (DHS) worked with Public Consulting Group (PCG) to deploy a series of three surveys to licensed child care providers to understand the impact that COVID-19 had on their businesses and the families they serve. Surveys were done online with communications sent to providers including emails from PCG/DHS, phone and/or email contact from DHS licensors and BrightStars staff and a SEIU text campaign to family child care providers (FCC). (author abstract)

South Carolina

August 2020

Between April 17 and April 27, the Institute for Child Success (ICS) surveyed early care and education providers, trying to understand more about the effect of the pandemic on the already-fragile early care and education market. The results of the survey show that, like for many other small businesses, the economic impact for child care centers has been sharply negative. The sector has already experienced approximately $40 million in lost revenue, and about half of all centers have closed. Those that remain open are serving a fraction of their prior students, so the overall supply has reduced to approximately one-third of pre-COVID capacities. Those centers that do remain open are struggling to manage basic operations, and many providers feel that governmental supports are challenging to access. Many are also struggling to understand how they might be able to reopen once the pandemic subsides. (author abstract)

May 2020

Between April 17 and April 27 the Institute for Child Success (ICS) surveyed early care and education providers, trying to understand more about the effect of the pandemic on the already-fragile early care and education market. The results of the survey show that, like for many other small businesses, the economic impact for child care centers has been sharply negative. The sector has already experienced approximately $40 million in lost revenue, and about half of all centers have closed. Those that remain open are serving a fraction of their prior students, so the overall supply has reduced to approximately one-third of pre-COVID capacities. Those centers that do remain open are struggling to manage basic operations, and many providers feel that governmental supports are challenging to access. Many are also struggling to understand how they might be able to reopen once the pandemic subsides. (author abstract)

May 2020

This document highlights the specific findings as they relate to select counties in South Carolina which we define as more likely to be rural. Providers were asked to report the county in which they were located during the survey, so this is the only geographic unit of measurement available. However, we recognize that the defining an entire county as "rural" or "not rural" is a difficult approximation. We chose to focus this report on those counties which are not among the most populous and also do not contain one of the most populous cities in the state, as a rough proxy. (author abstract)

December 2020

In November 2020, the Institute for Child Success (ICS) launched a survey of child care providers in South Carolina to better understand how the continued spread of COVID-19 and resulting economic impacts are affecting the child care sector as of Fall 2020. This survey was adapted from a previous version fielded in Spring 2020, in the early days of the public health crisis. (author abstract)

Texas

July 2020

At the request of the City of Austin and the Austin Chamber of Commerce, the University of Houston's Hobby School of Public Affairs conducted an online survey of Austin area and Travis County child care centers. The survey sought to better understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and concomitant shutdowns on the child care industry. One of the main goals of the survey is to inform the decision-making process that will ultimately determine how limited federal funds can be distributed effectively and equitably. The survey was carried out between the morning of June 25 and the morning of July 9. A total of 94 child care centers responded to the survey. The child care centers surveyed ranged from family homes to individual child care centers, to school-based programs and enrolled between three and 800 children. (author abstract)

September 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic impacted early childhood programs serving infants, toddlers, and preschoolers in dramatic ways. After temporarily closing, many educators quickly adapted their procedures to ensure children’s safety as they reopened to provide childcare for essential workers and then the community at large. This manuscript reports on statewide efforts to continue quality improvement initiatives for early childhood programs amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. We first describe the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic for over 2000 educators—teachers, administrators, and specialists—who completed surveys in the Spring and Fall of 2020. These survey data come from a statewide system called the Texas Early Childhood Professional Development System (TECPDS), designed to track the professional development needs/progress of early childhood educators. Second, we describe an example of how a statewide professional development and quality improvement program shifted to remote delivery during the pandemic. As an increasing number of educators turn to virtual training resources, we explain lessons learned from these response efforts and how they can inform future virtual professional development efforts, even amidst crisis, to ensure that a focus on quality improvement continues while supporting teachers’ individual needs. (author abstract)

Virginia

September 2020

This report describes the experiences of over 1600 Virginia early educators in May 2020, about two months after the pandemic began. It provides the most comprehensive look to date at the experiences of early childhood education (ECE) teachers during the pandemic, describing changes to teachers' jobs and their well-being. It also highlights the very stark differences in these experiences for those ECE teachers working in schools relative to those in child care centers. (author abstract)

August 2020

Survey was conducted in July 2020, by ChildSavers and Smart Beginnings in partnership with the Community Foundation for a greater Richmond and the Robins Foundation. 600 surveys were distributed electronically (n= 110). (author abstract)

June 2020

The sample collected from May 12 - May 17 included 880 respondents from a geographically representative sample of Virginia. The survey was offered in English & Spanish. While the focus age for the children we were seeking information on was 0-13, approximately half of the respondents had a preschool age child ages 2 to 5 years old. (author abstract)

January 2021

This report describes the experiences of 74 women who run family day homes in Virginia, adding to the small body of evidence that examines the impact of the pandemic on this often overlooked sector of child care. Its key contribution is that it draws upon data collected from surveys administered before and during the pandemic as part of Virginia’s Preschool Development Grant Birth through Five (PDG B-5) initiative. The first survey was conducted in May 2019 at the start of the PDG B-5 initiative. The second was administered to this same group of educators in May 2020. Although our sample is small, data from these two surveys provide a unique look at the experiences of family day home teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic, capturing changes in their well-being relative to before the pandemic. (author abstract)

April 2021

Despite the importance of early learning experiences for school readiness and children’s long-term learning trajectories, much of the research on learning during COVID-19 has focused on older, K-12 children. Understanding how the pandemic impacted the learning experiences of preschool-age children is critical for reducing the long-term ramifications of COVID-19 on young children. Using survey data from 1,828 teachers working with children 3-5 years of age in ECE classrooms in Virginia, this report addresses this gap by describing the impact that COVID-19 had on teaching and learning in ECE classrooms. It compares the experiences of teachers whose primary mode of instruction was in person teaching to those who either taught fully remotely (e.g., online class meetings, video lessons, or learning packets sent home) or through a hybrid of remote and in person teaching. (author abstract)

April 2021

This winter, nearly 7,000 Virginia parents and guardians of children 0-5 completed a survey about their experiences during the pandemic. This brief describes families’ concerns related to their employment and financial stability, their ability to manage caregiving and work responsibilities, and their children’s learning and wellbeing. The brief also explores differences in families’ concerns by their income level and their child’s race as systemic barriers and discrimination may exacerbate challenges for families in poverty and families of color. Overall, findings indicate high levels of stress and worry in all three areas, especially among low-income families, Black families, and Hispanic families. These differences by income and race suggest that the pandemic may have heightened existing inequities in families’ financial stability and overall wellbeing. (author abstract)

June 2021

This report takes a closer look at child care staffing issues during COVID using data from a large-scale survey fielded in fall 2020 as part of Virginia’s Preschool Development Grant Birth-5 (PDG B-5). Leaders at all child care sites participating in the PDG B-5 were invited to take a survey online or on paper. At least one leader from 262 child care sites responded, representing 85% of the child care sites surveyed. (author abstract)

June 2021

This brief details the unique challenges that home-based providers faced throughout the pandemic, summarizing the impact of COVID on their enrollment and finances. It uses data from a survey of family day home teachers fielded in Fall 2020 as part of Virginia’s Preschool Development Grant Birth-5 (PDG B-5). All family day home providers participating in the PDG B-5 were invited to take a survey about their experiences during COVID. In total, 228 providers completed the survey, a response rate of 81%. (author abstract)

June 2021

This brief describes the child care experiences of Virginia families with very young children during the pandemic, using data from a large-scale, statewide survey of families. It presents overall patterns as well as trends by family income and children’s race/ethnicity. (author abstract)

July 2021

Using data from over 4,000 early educators working in publicly funded school-based pre-kindergarten programs, child care centers, and family day homes in Virginia, this brief describes changes in the prevalence of depression symptoms relative to pre-pandemic levels. We use two waves of survey data: one from before the pandemic (Spring 2019) and one during the pandemic (Fall 2020) to demonstrate increases in depression rates over time, and document COVID-specific concerns which may have contributed to these changes. (author abstract)

July 2021

Using data from a large statewide survey of families with young children (ages 3-5) in Virginia, this brief describes families’ preferences for virtual or in-person ECE options and examines whether these preferences aligned with the settings children actually experienced. Given the disparate impacts of the pandemic on families with lower incomes and Black and Hispanic families, we explore patterns by families’ income levels and race/ethnicity, highlighting large differences both in preferences, and in the likelihood of accessing preferred options. (author abstract)

July 2021

In Virginia, early educators teaching virtually were much more concerned about their students’ learning, social skills, and behavior relative to those teaching in-person. Families can provide another important perspective, especially because many took on an even larger role in their young children’s learning during COVID than they might have in other years. This report uses survey responses from almost 3,000 Virginia families with children ages 3-5. It documents families’ perspectives on their children’s learning and development during the pandemic and explores how these perceptions varied across instructional modes. (author abstract)

Vermont

May 2020

The Vermont Department for Children and Families, Child Development Division in partnership with Building Bright Futures, Let’s Grow Kids, Vermont Department of Health, Vermont Agency of Education and Vermont Afterschool surveyed regulated child care, prekindergarten and afterschool programs on their needs to reopen child care programs after an extended closure related to COVID-19. Programs were asked questions about their current operating status, anticipated status if a reopening was allowed, and the supports needed to ensure children, families and their staff are successful in a reopening. Programs were given the current Vermont Department of Health guidance on how to provide child care, which includes information about limited group size to 10 people, and restrictions on shared spaces, along with health screening and more. (author abstract)

Washington

July 2020

This chapter found within a much longer report, compiles and outlines the findings of several researchers who have identified changes to Washington State's child care market during the COVID-19 pandemic. All findings are from the perspective of child care providers.

December 2020

School's Out Washington developed the COVID-19 Impact Survey to understand how school-age childcare and youth development programs in Washington State have maintained and changed since the start of the pandemic. This brief highlights providers ability to continue operating amid the impacts of COVID-19. We focus both on organization's perception of their ability to continue operating and factors that are contributing to those perspectives. (author abstract)

December 2020

School's Out Washington developed the COVID-19 Impact Survey to understand how school-age childcare and youth development programs in Washington State have maintained and changed since the start of the pandemic. This brief highlights COVID-19's impact on staffing. Staffing encompasses organizations increasing, maintaining, furloughing, or laying off workers because of conditions caused by COVID-19. This brief also discusses our response to the ongoing pandemic. (author abstract)

December 2020

School's Out Washington developed the COVID-19 Impact Survey to understand how school-age childcare and youth development programs in Washington State have maintained and changed since the start of the pandemic. This brief highlights programming shifts to virtual platforms and discusses both synchronous and asynchronous learning shifts. Synchronous learning occurs when youth and staff utilize programs like Zoom or Google Hangout to respond immediately. While asynchronous learning opportunities occur when organizations post learning modules to their website or other online platforms like Facebook. (author abstract)

Wisconsin

July 2020

COVID-19 health concerns and restrictions have produced considerable turmoil in Wisconsin's child care sector which will play a critical role in efforts to fully re-open the state's economy. Financial losses and the potential permanent closure of child care centers could exacerbate longstanding challenges with access to quality care and may require intervention by policymakers to ensure adequate support for providers, families, and employers. (author abstract)

Multiple States

May 2020

The survey was conducted from March 31 – April 4, 2020, among a national sample of 800 parents of children under the age of 5 who were employed and paid for child care within the last three months, but whose situations may have changed recently as direct result of COVID-19. The interviews were conducted online. Results from the full survey have a margin of error of plus or minus 3 percentage points. (author abstract)

December 2020

The coronavirus pandemic has placed caregiving at the top of many Americans’ minds. Recent upticks in teleworking arrangements, along with the widespread shock to school and childcare situations this past spring, have raised important questions about how caregivers and working families are faring during the pandemic. Accordingly, the American Enterprise Institute commissioned a survey of 3,518 working-age adults in late July 2020 to better understand the paid leave landscape available to working families during the COVID-19 pandemic and how the pandemic has shaped childcare needs and arrangements. (author abstract)

October 2020

From May–August 2020 Home Grown gathered data via an online survey of FCC providers and FFN caregivers who received emergency funding. The data in this document reflects our preliminary analysis of data from 1247 providers and caregivers who took the survey. (author abstract)

October 2020

From May–August 2020 Home Grown gathered data via an online survey of licensed FCC providers who received emergency funding. The data in this document reflects our preliminary analysis of data from 758 FCC providers who took the survey. (author abstract)

October 2020

From May–August 2020 Home Grown gathered data via an online survey of FFN caregivers who received emergency funding. The data in this document reflects our preliminary analysis of data from 489 FFN caregivers who took the survey. (author abstract)

October 2020

This study builds upon a series of studies conducted by the Foundation in the fall of 2019, which found that state economies were losing billions of dollars annually due to childcare challenges for working parents. In the spring and summer of 2020, the Foundation surveyed parents, employers, and childcare providers to understand how these childcare challenges had evolved due to COVID-19. In August, the Foundation surveyed working parents again to better understand if and how their childcare challenges may have evolved as the impact of COVID-19 has endured. (author abstract)

January 2020

A total of 862 childcare centers were recruited from August 17th to September 17th, 2020 through the email lists and social media accounts of HiMama, the Child Care Success Company, the Council for Professional Recognition, the Institute for Childhood Preparedness, and ProSolutions Training. Respondents were asked to provide data from the preceding 12 months from the date that they took the survey. (author abstract)

September 2020

This research-to-policy brief is part of Erikson Institute's Multi-State Study of Family Child Care Decline that is currently examining the factors behind the decline of licensed care in four states. Findings presented here are based on 22 focus groups with 123 family child care providers in California (Los Angeles County) Wisconsin, Massachusetts, and Florida between March and June 2020. (author abstract)

September 2020

This is an analysis of child care attendance and market changes, only among centers using Procare Solutions software products, during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic across the United States. Data were collected by the software and anonymized. Trends were identified related to the closure and reopening of child care centers and levels of attendance, week-to-week, and state-by-state, from March through mid-September of 2020. The authors present a few pages of compiled national data in addition to detailed information for each state.

September 2020

In this study we interviewed 18 different childcare providers about the impact of COVID-19 on their business as well as their concerns and priorities for the future. We interviewed a variety of provider types from large, for-profit centers to local nonprofit organizations to home-based providers. (author abstract)

August 2020

Parents are trying balance their dual roles with limited to no access to formal childcare or family, friend, or neighbors to help, making childcare an important need for every employer and state to prioritize in their return to work plans. With that in mind, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation has launched a new longitudinal study to understand how childcare challenges affect working parents and their employers in the unprecedented times of COVID-19. Over the next few months, the Chamber Foundation will be releasing findings and insights from multiple angles of those impacted by the childcare challenges, including parents, employers, and childcare providers. Adjacent are some topline findings from employers. In this study we looked at the changes employers have implemented due to COVID-19 as well as their concerns and priorities as they determine how and when to return to work. Knowing that childcare plays a key role in return to work plans, we asked how employers are thinking about childcare assistance, benefits, and accommodations in these unique circumstances. (author abstract)

January 2020

As the COVID-19 pandemic spread across the US and protective measures to mitigate its impact were enacted parents and children experienced widespread disruptions in daily life. The objective of this national survey was to determine how the pandemic and mitigation efforts affected the physical and emotional wellbeing of parents and children in the US through early June 2020. Methods: In June 2020, we conducted a national survey of parents with children under age 18 to measure changes in health status, insurance status, food security, utilization of public food assistance resources, childcare and use of health care services since the pandemic began. Results: Since March 2020, 27% of parents reported worsening mental health for themselves, and 14% reported worsening behavioral health for their children. The proportion of families with moderate or severe food insecurity increased from 6% before March 2020 to 8% after, employer-sponsored insurance coverage of children decreased from 63% to 60%, and 24% of parents reported a loss of regular childcare. Worsening mental health for parents occurred alongside worsening behavioral health for children in nearly 1 in 10 families, among whom 48% reported loss of regular childcare, 16% reported change in insurance status, and 11% reported worsening food security. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial tandem impact on parents and children in the US. As policymakers consider additional measures to mitigate the health and economic effects of the pandemic, they should consider the unique needs of families with children. (author abstract)

August 2020

This report examines how school and child care closures are affecting working mothers and fathers, based on data from the U.S. Census's Household Pulse Survey (Week 12: July 16 – 21, 2020) and the Current Population Survey (IPUMS-CPS).

August 2020

I examine the impact of the COVID-19 shock on parents' labor supply during the initial stages of the pandemic. Using difference-in-difference estimation and monthly panel data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), I compare labor market attachment, non-work activity, hours worked, and earnings and wages of those in areas with early school closures and stay-in-place orders with those in areas with delayed or no pandemic closures. While there was no immediate impact on detachment or unemployment, mothers with jobs in early closure states were 53.2 percent more likely than mothers in late closure states to have a job but not be working as a result of early shutdowns. There was no effect on working fathers or working women without school age children. Of mothers who continued working, those in early closure states worked more weekly hours than mothers in late closure states; fathers reduced their hours. The increase in hours worked of mothers is entirely driven by mothers living with spouses who were not working. Overall, the pandemic appears to have induced a unique immediate juggling act for working mothers of school age children. (author abstract)

August 2020

The research conducted by Morning Consult on behalf of the Bipartisan Policy Center among parents seeks to understand: 1. How COVID-19 has impacted child care arrangements 2. Child care needs during COVID-19 3. Considerations for sending children back to child care 4. And the impact on parents with school aged children whose school is not re-opening in person. Audience: Survey respondents were screened on the following criteria: • Children at home under the age of 5 • Someone in household employed in January 2020. For simplicity, throughout the report, this audience is referenced as ‘parents.’ Methodology: The survey was conducted from August 3-10, 2020 among 1,000 parents of children under the age of 5 who were employed in January 2020. The interviews were conducted online. Results from the full survey have a margin of error of plus or minus 3 percentage points. (author abstract)

July 2020

To learn how the pandemic is impacting young children's learning experiences the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) developed a parent survey on: (1) children's home learning activities during the pandemic; (2) children's preschool participation and program closures; and (3) services children and parents received to support emergency remote learning when preschool programs closed their classroom operations due to the pandemic. NIEER adopted some questions from previous national surveys such as the National Household Survey Education Survey to compare pre- and post-school closure activity patterns. (author abstract)

July 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic presents tremendous challenges for preschool education. Most of the nation's 3- to 5-year-olds attending preschool programs had their 2019-20 school year cut short as stay at home orders were issued and in-person classroom attendance was shut down. What were the consequences for young children? The National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) conducted a nationwide survey of parents of children ages three to five to find out. The survey provides information that can be used to develop policies and plans for the remainder of this summer and for the 2020-21 school year. Key issues include how much preschool classroom time was lost and how well programs provided remote education to replace lost in-person experiences. (author abstract)

July 2020

We have separated our key findings into two categories: (1) Common Experience, and (2) Childcare Equation and Returning to Work. The findings categorized as Common Experience are more intuitive insights that validate common situations working parents have personally experienced. These findings illustrate the complicated situation in which many parents now find themselves: balancing working from home with full-time responsibility of a young child. These findings establish a baseline of understanding of how the majority of parents' work situations has been impacted by COVID-19. (author abstract)

July 2020

This online survey, created and conducted by NAEYC using SurveyMonkey, represents the responses of a non-randomized sample of 5,344 individuals working in center or home-based child care programs who completed the survey between June 19 and June 30, 2020. The respondents represent providers in 50 states as well as Washington, DC and Puerto Rico; 23% report that they work in family child care homes while 58% report that they work in center-based child care. The survey links were shared widely through email newsletters, listservs, social media, and via partnerships. The total number of individuals participating in the survey during this timeframe was 6,027 (in English) and 163 (in Spanish), but the number of responses from three states was well above the mean, so a smaller random sample from those states was selected to minimize a skew in the data results. Given the constantly changing and widely varying nature of the crisis, the analysis from this survey is intended to present the experiences of the respondents, as captured in the moment that they take the survey, with extrapolations for the experiences of the field and industry at large. (author abstract)

July 2020

This report examines the ways in which afterschool programs have responded to the needs of their communities while facing challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is based on a survey conducted between May 28 - June 30, 2020 of 914 program providers representing more than 6,000 program sites.

June 2020

On May 12, 2020 Child Care Aware® of America (CCAoA) sent a survey to Child Care Resource and Referral (CCR&R) agencies across the country. The purpose of this survey was to collect information on how CCR&Rs are responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, along with concerns that they are hearing from the field. Staff members from 163 CCR&Rs representing 41 states responded to this survey. The following is a summary of survey results. (author abstract)

June 2020

These are the findings of a survey of the changing practices of early childhood education degree programs in response to the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. The authors surveyed 263 educators to learn of the challenges faced in the rapid switch to online learning. The survey also collected information on challenges faced by students the ability to place students in classrooms, and challenges related to the use of online key assessments for program accreditation.

May 2020

As the economic crisis driven by COVID-19 unfolded, child care providers -- directors of child care centers and owners of home-based programs, as well as teachers and other child care staff -- began recounting its effects on our facebook page, Childcare Changemakers, and its related facebook group. Building off these reports, we developed a survey to capture the pandemic's impact on the child care providers sharing their stories in this venue, provide a forum for the voices of owners and workers directly impacted by the crisis, and help inform the policy response to the pandemic. (See Appendix A for the full survey and methodology). The survey results, detailed below, highlight the crisis facing child care providers, many of which, without additional aid, will shut their doors forever. They also illuminate the economic hardship that child care providers and workers are facing during this crisis. And the results show the safety concerns that child care workers have, which must be addressed as states begin to reopen. (author abstract)

January 2020

The following survey results reflect the responses of afterschool programs in 49 states plus the District of Columbia during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Afterschool Alliance continues to gather information, stories, and perspectives from programs as they adjust to the new environment. Results are based on 358 responses collected through a national online survey conducted by the Afterschool Alliance between March 31 - April 7, 2020. (author abstract)

March 2021

To examine the critical role of FFN providers before, during, and after the pandemic, assess the supports they have received in offering care, and identify the additional supports they need to offer safe and supportive care for children while ensuring their own well-being, the National Women’s Law Center conducted a survey of FFN providers and organizations that offer support to FFN providers. This report summarizes the findings of the survey, conducted between late July and early September 2020, to offer insight into how the pandemic, the recession, and access to supports have affected FFN caregivers’ ability to provide care, and what strategies will help these crucial providers thrive in the future. (author abstract)

February 2021

To learn about the pandemic’s impacts on young children’s learning and development NIEER developed a parent survey regarding children’s home learning activities and preschool participation during the pandemic. The first survey was conducted in Spring 2020. We followed this up with a second survey in December 2020 with a national survey of parents of children ages 3 to 5 and not yet in kindergarten. As with the first survey, the second includes some questions from previous national surveys such as the National Household Education Survey to compare current circumstances with those prior to the pandemic. It also included a standardized measure of children’s social and emotional development and well-being. (author abstract)

December 2020

This spring, following the dramatic changes resulting from the global COVID-19 pandemic, the Chamber Foundation began an in-depth study to understand the implications for families, the childcare industry, and employers. The report that follows, and its underlying research, serves to address how the pandemic has impacted families’ priorities, needs, and behaviors in regards to their Childcare Equation and their ability to participate in the workforce. Additionally, this report explores how the childcare industry is adapting and navigating the evolving impact of COVID-19, and how employers have and are responding to the increasing childcare needs of their employees and communities. (author abstract)

November 2020

Afterschool programs are adapting to the various school reopening scenarios that are being implemented across the country. The Wave 3 survey provides a snapshot of the education landscape in the United States, focusing on how afterschool program providers are supporting and complementing school-day learning as schools operate in person, virtually, and with hybrid schedules. As schools and families deal with the rapidly changing local circumstances related to the coronavirus, afterschool programs are stepping up and tailoring their services to support students and address gaps: extending program hours, offering access to healthy meals and services, and providing care to the children of essential workers. Afterschool in the Time of COVID-19 Wave 3 data were collected from Sep. 28 to Oct. 27, surveying 1,445 program providers representing more than 7,300 program sites in 48 states and the District of Columbia. (author abstract)

September 2020

After six months in a COVID-19 world, with the continued uncertainty of when things will return to normal, this brief, Preparing for Back to School and Navigating Summer in the Time of COVID-19, combines findings from a survey of parents along with the second in a series of surveys of afterschool and summer providers to monitor the state of the afterschool field. The Wave 2 provider survey of 1,047 afterschool and summer program providers, conducted between July 20 and August 31, finds that providers are growing increasingly worried about their program’s long-term sustainability. (author abstract)

December 2020

The essential yet chronically undervalued child care sector has sacrificed and struggled to serve children and families since the start of the COVID pandemic. NAEYC’s newest survey, completed between November 13–29, 2020, by more than 6,000 respondents working in child care centers and family child care homes shows that the crisis facing child care is as consistent and devastating today as it was in March and in July. (author abstract)

December 2020

In collaboration with ACF, CDC conducted a mixed-methods study during September–October 2020 in Head Start programs in eight states (Alaska, Georgia, Idaho, Maine, Missouri, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin). Head Start programs, each with five to 17 centers and 500–2,500 children, were selected by the Office of Head Start. The four-phase study design included reviews of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for COVID-19 mitigation, deployment of an online survey for program directors to document mitigation strategies implemented and COVID-19 cases reported, in-depth interviews with staff members from five programs overall, and observation of mitigation strategy implementation during a virtual visit to one Head Start site. This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy. (author abstract)

August 2020

To learn how the pandemic is impacting young children's learning experiences the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) developed a parent survey on: (1) children's home learning activities during the pandemic; (2) children's preschool participation and program closures; and (3) services children and parents received to support emergency remote learning when preschool programs closed their classroom operations due to the pandemic. NIEER adopted some questions from previous national surveys such as the National Household Survey Education Survey to compare pre- and post-school closure activity patterns. (author abstract)

April 2021

In summer 2020, the American Enterprise Institute launched a longitudinal survey to better understand the changing dynamics of American families during this difficult time and assess federal efforts to mitigate hardship and support caretaking. After the first wave of data collection in July 2020, we contacted respondents again in February 2021 to complete a second wave. This report summarizes results from the 1,566 parents who completed both surveys, offering a unique picture of the changes American families experienced as the pandemic progressed. (author abstract)

January 2021

The research conducted by Morning Consult on behalf of the Bipartisan Policy Center seeks to understand: 1. Important factors that influence parents child care arrangement decisions 2. The child care arrangements used before and during COVID-19 3. Ideal child care arrangements before and during COVID-19 4. The impact of a COVID-19 vaccine on sending children back to a child care provider. Audience: Survey respondents were screened on having a child at home under the age of 5. For simplicity, throughout the report, this audience is referenced as ‘parents.’ Methodology: The survey was conducted from December 11-16 2020 among a national sample of 1,500 parents with children under the age of 5. The interviews were conducted online and the data weighted to approximate a target sample of parents with children under the age of 5 based on age, gender, educational attainment, race, ethnicity, and region. Results from the full survey have a margin of error of plus or minus 3 percentage points. (author abstract)

August 2021

This fact sheet/infographic focuses on issues that concern making contact with and providing services to enrolled families during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on results from a survey of Region XI Head Start program directors in which data was collected June 2, 2020 to July 17, 2020.

August 2021

This fact sheet/infographic focuses on staff support involving professional development, well-being, and retention, during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on results from a survey of Region XI Head Start program directors in which data was collected June 2, 2020 to July 17, 2020.

August 2021

This fact sheet/infographic focuses on preparation for future emergencies including flexibility in the use of Head Start funds, guidance in creating plans, and trainings to deliver content and services remotely. It is based on results from a survey of Region XI Head Start program directors in which data was collected June 2, 2020 to July 17, 2020.

September 2021

This article describes the development and administration of a survey to identify early childhood educators’ successes and barriers when delivering remote instruction (e.g., online whole or small group instruction) during the COVID-19 pandemic to children 2–5 years old. The survey was developed using procedures outlined by the commonly accepted stages of an instrument development process. Content validity was established using four approaches: (a) identification of the purpose of the survey, (b) creation of a blueprint of items, (c) cognitive interviews, and (d) expert panel review. A total of 1,053 early childhood educators began the survey, with 808 (77%) of the responses included because educators met the inclusion criteria of working in the United States and responding to at least one question related to remote instruction. The survey contained 37 closed-ended and six open-ended items covering eight domains: (a) demographic information; (b) preparation, guidelines, and materials for remote learning; (c) caregiver communication and engagement; (d) assessment; (e) instruction; (f) educators’ levels of confidence before and after remote learning; (g) access to services (i.e., wraparound and/or special education); and (h) planning for the return to face-to-face instruction. Both quantitative (descriptive, t-test, regression, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests) and consensual qualitative research analyses were applied to summarize the survey results. Findings from this survey indicated that even with limited or no guidance from administrators, educators successfully adapted to remote instruction and their levels of confidence increased over time. Ongoing improvements need to be made to sustain regular communication with all families, to offer access to technology (i.e., devices and internet), to administer assessments or universal screeners, and to provide cohesive guidelines and expectations. Results from this study begin to shed light on early childhood educators’ adaptation to remote instruction as a result of COVID-19. (author abstract)

September 2021

This study explored similarities and differences in how early childhood education (ECE) teachers (n=947) and early childhood special education (ECSE) teachers (n=160) provided remote learning to young children and their families following COVID-19 shelter in place orders in the spring of 2020. The most utilized remote learning activities for both ECE and ECSE teachers were the provision of activities for families to use at home, communication with families, online lessons, and singing songs and reading books. Both types of professionals spent more time planning and communicating with families than providing instruction to children. Results of chi-square tests of independence revealed differences in activities provided, how time was spent, and training received by professional role. Open-ended responses revealed particular challenges for ECE and ECSE teachers. Findings are discussed in the context of how the early childhood field adapted quickly to remote learning during COVID-19 and the implications for ongoing technology support for early childhood personnel based on their professional role. (author abstract)

June 2021

The research conducted by Morning Consult on behalf of the Bipartisan Policy Center seeks to understand how work settings are changing for employed parents and how that impacts child care demands. Specific research objectives included: 1. Understand current and future work and child care arrangements 2. The impact of COVID-19 on children’s social-emotional and behavioral health 3. Use of financial supports for child care, including federal tax credits 4. Future preferences for child care and pre-k (author abstract)

April 2020

The survey was conducted from March 31 – April 4, 2020, among a national sample of 800 parents of children under the age of 5 who were employed and paid for child care within the last three months, but whose situations may have changed recently as direct result of COVID-19. The interviews were conducted online. Results from the full survey have a margin of error of plus or minus 3 percentage points. (author abstract)

August 2021

This report present findings from a survey that examined parent preferences concerning work and child care arrangements. It was conducted May 28 – June 10, 2021, and the final data set is a representative sample of 2,500 adults ages 18-55 living in the United States.

August 2021

Based on a survey of 954 parents of children ages 3-5, this report examines pre- and post-pandemic home and preschool learning activity participation, along with parents' plans for summer and fall. Key lessons from the survey are provided.

July 2021

U.S. families have long faced challenges finding safe, reliable, and affordable child care. But the weight of this challenge has increased dramatically for families since the beginning of the pandemic. Relying on data from our RAPID‑EC family and child care provider surveys, this fact sheet documents the importance of ensuring adequate child care access for households with young children. (author abstract)

September 2021

In a previous fact sheet, we described challenges that child care providers are facing during the pandemic. Providers had been experiencing pronounced difficulties paying for basic needs. We also found that this stress has been negatively affecting their emotional well-being. In our survey, one in four providers had at least one other job, and over 40% of reported that providing child care accounted for less than half of their income. In this fact sheet, we further describe the life of a child care provider. (author abstract)

September 2021

Seeking personal well-being and life satisfaction during a global pandemic can be daunting, such is the case for early care and education teachers who were considered non-health care essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The potential changes in their physical activity, along with their overall physical and psychological well-being, may have ultimately influenced their life satisfaction. These changes included the potential for increased sedentary behaviors. Despite the high health risks associated with these factors during the pandemic, the role of physical activity in early care and education teachers’ well-being and life satisfaction remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with teacher well-being and life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. In doing so, we explored two competing models of the relationship between the teachers’ physical activity, well-being, and life satisfaction, one with physical activity as a mediator and the other with teachers’ well-being as a mediator. An online survey, that collected information on physical, psychological, and professional well-being, job demands, and life satisfaction, was completed by 1434 US ECE teachers in 46 states. To test our hypothesized models, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses, followed by structural equation modeling. Of the respondents, 77% were overweight or obese and only 39% met the recommended 150 min of moderate physical activity per week. They had a mean life satisfaction score that qualifies as slight satisfaction, they experience moderate stress, and, collectively, are approaching the threshold for depression yet still reflect moderate-to-high work commitment. The empirical test of our competing mediation models found the model where teacher well-being mediated the association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and life satisfaction was the superior model. The relationships between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and overall well-being suggest that these modifiable risk factors can be addressed such that early care and education teachers can improve their overall physical and psychological well-being, along with their life satisfaction. (author abstract)

September 2021

In December 2020, we surveyed adults living with children younger than age 6 to understand how they were faring nine months into the COVID-19 pandemic. (author abstract)

July 2021

In July of 2021, NAEYC conducted an online survey of over 7,500 self-selected child care, Head Start, and pre-K workers who responded to emails on listservs and other electronic communications. Respondents were asked to rank common challenges faced by programs and providers in perceived order of importance as experienced in the summer of 2021. The data is analyzed and findings are discussed on two topics: the impact of COVID-19 relief funding, and challenges related to staff retention, recruitment, and compensation. Suggestions are presented related to the continued use of of COVID-19 temporary subsidy policies to address longer-term problems.

April 2021

This research review summarizes what is known about the extent to which COVID-19 spreads in child care and preschool programs. It synthesizes findings from 11 studies that measure transmission in these settings, both in the United States and internationally. The available evidence suggests that early learning programs are not associated with increased risk of contracting COVID-19 when health and safety precautions are in place. (author abstract)

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